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  1. 8. Describe the directing and controlling functions of management. How do these functions relate to

the planning and organizing functions? Use specific examples to support your answers.


  1. 9. The head of a college or university, who often has the title of president, was a college professor before moving into an administrative role in almost every case. Therefore, the president's expertise is in operations, which would include teaching and research tasks. However, in corporations, the CEO is often someone with experience in marketing or finance. A CEO with a background in operations would be relatively rare. Why do you think this difference exists? In what ways is it beneficial for the school? In what ways is it a potential limitation or problem?


  1. 10. International skills, including proficiency in more than one language, are becoming more important for managers today. Yet Americans as a group often do not speak even one language other than English. For example, the U.S. Census Bureau reports that only about 20 percent of people living in the U.S. proficiently speak a language other than English and of those, more than 2/3 are immigrants or the children of immigrants, whose families speak the second language at home. Can you communicate effectively in a language other than English? To obtain a business degree, does your school require study of a language other than English?


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