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Hello I am taking a Science 140 class and I am trying to figure out how to do the math computations to get the

correct answers for this lab sheet can you help? This lab is on Fossil Fuels.

Fossil Fuels: Capstone Name: Fossil Fuels in Our Lives Our modern way of life is intimately dependent upon fossil fuels. There are very few aspects of our daily life that are not, in some way, touched by our usage of them. Just examine what is required to read this activity on your computer screen. If you are in the U.S. and plugged into the local electrical system, the majority of the electricity powering the computer came from the burning of coal. The plastic in the keyboard and computer came from crude oil or natural gas feedstock. The smelters that were used to create the wires in the computer and in the electric and phone lines used some sort of coal or petroleum fuel source. Could all of this usage of fossil fuels be replaced? That is a very important question. The consumption of fossil fuels to provide energy could be replaced by other fuels such as wind, nuclear, and hydroelectric, although it is not going to happen overnight. However, there are many other uses of fossil fuels where replacements are not going to be easy, as the list of viable alternatives is quite short and expensive. How do you replace the use of natural gas for making artiFcial fertilizers? You could go back to the process of using manure, but it would come at a very heavy price and might result in reduced food crops, which could seriously impact a world population that is still growing. How do you replace the use of crude oil for plastic? There is some work on using plant materials to create biodegradable plastics, but it is still years o±. And what of the use of oil as a lubricant or wax? The product that we used to use for this (whale oil) is in very short supply. Our nation currently consumes 20.0 million barrels of oil, 6.0 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 3.0 million short tons of coal every day. These rates have been growing, and are projected to continue to grow over the coming years. As fossil fuel stocks become depleted, it will have a serious impact on our lives. Shortages will lead to higher prices for the products that use them, which given the ubiquitous nature of their usage, means that in²ation will take o± like a rocket. This will lead to unstable economic and political situations. If history has any say in this matter, this could mean going to war. In this capstone activity, we are going to try to look at our individual fossil fuel usage. It would be nice if we could actually calculate how much each one of us is responsible for using. However, a great deal of our personal fossil fuel usage is hidden from us and almost impossible to calculate. ³or instance, the food that we eat was produced using oil in the fertilizer spread on the crops, fuel in the tractors that plowed the Feld, and diesel in the trucks that brought the food to market, amongst other things. The newspaper you read in the morning required fossil fuels to create the paper, run the presses, and deliver the paper. Every product that you use during your day has a similar story. Rather than try to calculate the total amount of fossil fuels that you use, we are going to only look at some rather direct usage that we can track very easily. ³or the purposes of this activity, we are going to investigate how much fossil fuel we use to transport ourselves and to power our homes. This usage is just a fraction of the total amount of usage for which we are responsible. All of our usage from industrial and commercial processes combined amounts to over 8.2 barrels of oil, .7 tons of coal, and 53 tcf of natural gas per person in the 1
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U.S. per year. Even these numbers do not account for transporting products to market or to your home. Activity To aid us in our estimation, we will use an online calculator that will convert the measurable items that we use into amounts of fossil fuel that have been consumed. This calculator is able to do this based upon some assumptions about the mix of fuel in this country. To use the calculator, you will need to Fnd out or estimate the following quantities about your lifestyle: • The average number of miles that you drive each year, and the mileage of your car(s). • The number of miles that you drive/±y each year on airlines, buses, trains, taxis, and motorcycles. • The amount of electricity that you use in your home each year. • The amount of natural gas, propane, kerosene, or heating oil that you use in your home each year. • The amount of gasoline that you use in your lawnmower/weed eater each year. Plugging these numbers into the calculator will allow you to estimate how much of each fossil fuel you are responsible for consuming each year. After doing this, answer the questions on the activity sheet below. (Note: To estimate your usage for each of these categories, you can use your monthly utility bills and determine the amount for a year. If you do not receive a bill, ask a family member or friend for the information. Or, you can use the averages below to input into the calculator. Remember to use only the averages that you use in your household and that this will be a very rough estimate of your usage.) U.S. Annual Household Fuel Usage Averages Electricity: 8500 kWh / year Natural Gas: 400 therms / year Heating Oil: 800 gallons Propane Gas: 20 gallons Kerosene: 5 gallons ESA21: Environmental Science Activities 1. (15 points) Initial Data Activity Sheet ²ossil ²uel Capstone Car 1 miles driven 18250 Motorcycle miles 0 Yearly electricity Car 1 mileage 210000 Taxi miles 100 Yearly natural gas Car 2 miles driven 0 Train/Subway miles 100 Yearly heating oil Car 2 mileage 0 City bus miles 100 Yearly propane gas Airline miles 0 Interstate bus miles 100 Yearly kerosene 2
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Fossil Fuels: Capstone
U.S. Annual Household Fuel Usage Averages
Online Calculator Results 1 Activity Sheet Fossil Fuel Capstone ESA21: Environmental Science Activities
1. (15 points) Initial...

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