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Assignment 5 PART A: 9, the Endocrine System. Below you will find 5 sets of hormones.

Assignment 5


PART A:  Compare and Contrast -  Endocrine System Hormones

This assignment covers topics from Ch. 9, the Endocrine System.  Below you will find 5 sets of hormones.  The hormones which have been paired together share 1 or more characteristics in common; they also differ in 1 or more ways.  The characteristics that may be similar or different include:  the endocrine gland that releases the hormone, the chemical nature of the hormone, the variable the hormone influences, the organs that the hormone has an effect on (effectors), and the overall physiological effect in the body.  For each hormone set:

  • First, describe 1 way in which the hormones in the pair are SIMILAR, that is, a characteristic the hormones have in common.  
  • Then, describe 1 way that the hormones are DIFFERENT from one another, that is, a characteristic the hormones do NOT have in common.  
  • Finally, provide a SUMMARY statement which helps the reader understand the "big picture" relationship between the hormones - do not simply repeat the statements about how the hormones are similar or different.  
  • Insert in-text citation numbers for your sources.  At the end of this part, include a Reference Citation List for sources used.


ANSWER FORMAT:  Use the format illustrated below to organize your answers for each hormone set.  For each set, write the item number and the names of the hormones. Use uppercase font to label the SIMILARITY statement as "A", the DIFFERENCE statement as "B", and the SUMMARY statement as "C".  Provide 1 or 2 complete sentences written for each answer. Use the template below for your answers.



1.  hormone / hormone

A.  SIMILARITY:  1-2 complete sentences

B.  DIFFERENCE:  1-2 complete sentences

C.  SUMMARY:  1-2 complete sentences

2.  hormone / hormone



EXAMPLE:  In the example below, I have provided a few ways in which insulin and glucagon are similar and how they are different; I did this to demonstrate the kind of information that the assignment requires.  Note that for the DIFFERENCE between the hormones, I included specific examples to help illustrate my points - include specific examples in your answers, when appropriate.


1.  Insulin / glucagon

A.  SIMILARITY:  Both hormones are synthesized and secreted by the pancreas.  Both hormones modify blood glucose (sugar) levels. Both hormones affect sugar storage by the liver.  

B.  DIFFERENCE:  Insulin is secreted when blood sugar levels are too high (example: after eating a meal containing carbohydrates) whereas glucagon is secreted when blood sugar levels are too low (example:  in between meals and during sleep).  Insulin lowers blood sugar levels by increasing glucose uptake into cells (especially cells in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue) whereas glucagon raises blood sugar levels by causing the liver to break down stored glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream.  

C.  SUMMARY:  Although insulin and glucagon are antagonists because they have opposite effects on blood glucose levels, their share the goal of maintaining blood sugar levels within the optimal range for body function.


Hormone pairs:  

1. calcitonin / parathyroid hormone

2. testosterone / estrogen

3. aldosterone / antidiuretic hormone

4. oxytocin / prolactin

5. cortisol / epinephrine


Part A Reference Citation List:



PART B:  Cardiovascular System - Blood:  True or False Statements

This assignment covers Ch.10, Blood.  Read statements carefully then determine which statements are true and which are false.  Format your work according to the example below.  Answers should be written in your words in complete sentences.

  • For statements that are true, simply write the statement number and the word "TRUE".  
  • For statements that are false, write the statement number and the word "FALSE".  Then, provide the original statement.  Next, changing as few words as possible, then correct version of the statement and underline the portion of the statement that is NEW.  Be sure that all corrected statements refer to blood.  Lastly, justify your correction using scientifically valid information; which provide supporting evidence to explain WHY your corrected version of the statement is accurate.  
  • Insert in-text citation numbers for your sources.  At the end of this part, include a Reference Citation List for sources used.


ANSWER FORMAT:  For statements which are correct, write the item number and the word TRUE.  For statements which are not correct, write the item number and the word FALSE.  Use uppercase font to label the ORIGINAL STATEMENT as "A", your CORRECTED STATEMENT as "B", and your EXPLANATION for why the corrected statement is accurate as "C".  Use the format template below to format your answers.



1.  TRUE (if statement is correct)

2.  FALSE (if statement is not correct)

A.  ORIGINAL STATEMENT:  write the original statement

B.  CORRECTED STATEMENT:  change the statement so that it is correct and underline the portion that you changed.  Change as few words as possible to make the statement correct;

C.  EXPLANATION:  provide scientific information which explains WHY the changed statement is correct.



1.  Fifty five percent of blood is liquid called plasma, which consists of water plus solutes. 

2.  Albumin is a plasma protein produced by the liver and its function is  blood clotting.

3.  Some of the solutes found in plasma are sugars, oxygen and carbon dioxide, electrolytes, and hormones.

4.  Erythrocytes are round cells containing a large nucleus and abundant organelles.

5.  The iron containing protein which gives blood its red color is hemoglobin.   

6.  Leukocytes are created in yellow bone marrow whereas erythrocytes are created in red bone marrow.

7.  Circulatory shock occurs when a person loses a large volume of blood and blood pressure drops; it can result in death if critical organs such as the heart and brain do not receive enough blood.

8.  Approximately 50% of all cellular elements in blood are erythrocytes.

9.  A bruise is caused by leakage of blood out of a damaged blood vessel and into surrounding tissue.

10.  Hemoglobin functions to transport oxygen but it does not transport carbon dioxide.

11.  Macrophages eliminate foreign bacteria by engulfing them using a process called phagocytosis then digesting them using enzymes found in lysosomes.

12.  Megakaryocytes are blood stem cells which can differentiate into any of the formed elements.

13.  The amount of blood in an adult human varies depending on body size and sex, but on average it is about five liters.

14.  Leukemia is disorder in which the oxygen carrying capacity of blood is too low; it may be caused by a dietary deficiency in iron or vitamin B12 and causes the patient to feel tired.

15.  Kidneys secrete the hormone erythropoietin when blood oxygen levels are too low; the physiological effect of this hormone is stimulation of red blood cell (erythrocyte) production.

Part B Reference Citation List:

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