1.The __________ is a process for detecting and eliminating or reducing deviations from an organization’s established standards.
a. punitive reinforcement model
b. adaptive result model
c. corrective control model
d. organic control model
2. Erica Rader owns a company that relies on extensive rules and procedures, top-down authority, and tightly written job descriptions. Rader’s company could be described as using __________ organizational controls.
3. __________ provide employees with supplemental payments based on the income of an entire organization or a selected subunit.
a. Employee stock ownership plans
b. Profit-sharing plans
c. Bonus-sharing plans
d. Gain-sharing plans
4. If a company has a current ratio of _________, it should be able to pay its bills on time.
5. Erin Mays is the owner of Witt’s End Boutique. Her store has an inventory turnover ratio of about 10 (unusually high for this type of business). Which of the following statements is not true?
a. This ratio suggests efficient operations.
b. A ratio of 10 means that Mays has $10 in sales for every $1 of total assets.
c. This suggests that Mays may be able to use some of her resources elsewhere.
d. This suggests a relatively small amount of money is tied up in inventory.
6. __________ budgets focus on the expected flow of monetary receipts and expenditures and are usually developed at least once a year for each month of the year.
d. Net Income
7. Under the __________ mandates of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, companies must report financial results and material changes in corporate financial condition or operations as soon as they occur.
a. corporate accountability
8. Martha De La Cruz is the president of Secure Systems, Inc. De La Cruz is in the process of making decisions that will put jobs and relationships into a structure. De La Cruz is creating a(n) __________.
a. task structure
b. organizational structure
c. business plan
d. organizational design
9. Employees of Confidence Learning Centers face well-defined problems of developmentally challenged students, disinterested parents, and supply shortages. Tamara Beene has been an employee of the center for many years and was recently promoted to a managerial position. Beene’s span of control is likely to be __________.
10. Joseph Jones often writes his own test questions because he thinks that a mistake made by a student writer would be costly. Jones is reluctant to ___________.
a. delegate authority
b. give up power
c. reduce his span of control
d. share credit for good test questions
11. When Lowe’s advertises a nationwide sale on paint, all stores charge the same price because decision making has been __________.
12. Organizations such as American Airlines and JetBlue work hard to ensure an adequate supply of competent managers and employees. These companies are willing to permit employees to make mistakes involving small costs so as to learn from them. The decision making tends to be __________.
13. __________ involves dividing organizations into smaller units as a result of growth and increased complexity.
a. Horizontal design
c. Job rotation
d. Vertical design
14. Octavio Derrig is the president of ArtWorks, a consulting company. The firm has branches that are diverse in terms of customers, geographic location, and available services at each location. Derrig is most likely to choose to use __________ design for his firm.
15. Which of the following type of business is most characterized by sequential interdependence?
a. automobile assembly lines
b. convenience stores
16. Monitoring the intended outcomes and providing support for new behaviors are completed in what stage of radical organizational change?
17. Marriott Hotels and Bank of America use __________ and other forms of market research to assess customers’ preferences.
a. diagnostic methods
b. “whack-o-meter” sessions
c. performance appraisals
d. customer satisfaction surveys
18. The best way to assure that a plan for organizational change will be implemented Is to _____________.
a. prioritize short-term goals over long-term goals
b. correctly diagnose the problem
c. empower a task force to implement the change
d. involve employees early in the process
19. Steven Hensel’s subordinates are resisting his “Quality is #1” campaign because they think it is just another management fad. In order to succeed with the program, Hensel will need to eliminate __________.
a. the leader of resistance
c. fear of the unknown
20. At Wal-Mart, the electronic cash register monitors the goods sold, their prices, and the amounts remaining on hand. If the inventory of an item is low, the system sends the message to the appropriate distribution center and a reorder is placed. What approach to implementing change did Wal-Mart use when it introduced this system?
a. technological change
b. organization redesign
c. organization development
d. none of the above
21. In 1994, Sears, Roebuck, & Company sold off interests in insurance, real estate, and finance to focus on its core competency of merchandising. Sears was thereby __________.
b. resisting change
22. ____________ is an approach to structural redesign that is known to be used as a response to poor organizational performance, is seldom effective in the long run, and presents a painful experience to those who endure the process.
b. job creation
c. job simplification
23. __________ is a planned, long-range behavioral science strategy for understanding, changing, and developing an organization’s work force in order to improve its effectiveness.
a. Continuous improvement
b. Team building
c. Organization development
d. Behavior modification
24. Learning organizations encourage individual learning in which of the following ways?
25. What legislation requires employers to ensure as far as possible safe and healthy working conditions and the preservation of our human resources?
26. The _________ specifies a minimum wage and required payment for overtime work by covered employees.
a. Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985
b. Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
c. Equal Pay Act of 1963
d. Worker’s Compensation Act
27. Layoffs should be __________.
a. the first solution for cutting costs during sharp business downturns
b. conducted slowly over a long period of time
c. the preferred method to improve profits in a competitive industry
d. a strategy of last resort
28. Advanced Financial Solutions is successful in recruitment, selection, and retention of employees, as evidenced by its __________.
a. waiting list of prospective employees
b. high compensation rates
c. very low employee turnover
d. all of the above
29. Brady Ware is discussing employee improvement with a colleague, Ana Moreno. They are at odds over the difference between training and development. They decide to contact their former management professor, Justin Grant, for an answer. Most likely, Grant will indicate that __________.
a. training refers to improving an employee’s cognitive skills, whereas development seeks to develop an employee’s human relations skills
b. training refers to improving an employee’s skill to do current jobs, whereas development seeks to develop an employee’s skills for a future job
c. training and development both refer to improving an employee’s promotion opportunities, but training is more effective than development
d. There is no distinction between training and development.
30. At the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, excellent customer service is mandatory. In order to make that happen, the company believes that employees are the most important resource in the service commitment to the guests. The next step in providing excellent service is:
a. Excellent hiring practices
b. Retaining employees who will accept low pay
c. Keeping overtime hours to a minimum
d. Identifying and firing new hires who don’t “walk the talk”
31. A basic lesson that has been learned from research on performance appraisal accuracy is that __________.
a. workers are essentially lazy
b. performance evaluation is not as important as many people believe
c. money is the only real motivator
d. performance is very difficult to assess
32. Wages and salaries make up approximately __________ of the cost of employing a worker.
a. 51 percent
b. 63 percent
c. 72 percent
d. 86 percent
33. Stephanie Brister is an oncology nurse specialist at a large medical clinic. She has become discouraged lately with the benefits given to recently-hired nurses, believing they are receiving a much more generous package of bonuses, child care, training, and paid vacations than those nurses who have been at the clinic for many years. What approach to motivation should the physicians employ in order to retain Brister?
a. managerial approach
b. organization approach
c. individual differences approach
d. job design approach
34. __________is a signal that tells employees that they are doing well and should continue with their current approaches or that they aren’t doing very well and should try new approaches.
a. Goal commitment
b. Management by Objectives
d. Goal acceptance
35. Jack in the Box restaurants learned the hard way that dissatisfaction with ___________ causes much of the employee turnover experienced by fast-food restaurants.
a. hygiene factors
b. environmental factors
c. economic factors
d. all of the above
36. Jason Alaniz owns and operates a small industrial supply company. Alaniz uses a merit pay system to reward employees, but high performing employees do not feel satisfied. They complain that they do not receive enough merit pay given how well they perform. The employees’ complaints illustrate which theory?
a. Maslow’s needs theory
b. personal goal-setting theory
c. equity theory
d. reinforcement theory
37. Psychologist Abraham Maslow believed people have five types of needs, which he arranged in a hierarchy of needs. Why did Maslow arrange these needs in this manner?
a. Maslow believed needs are met in a chronological order, starting with infancy to old age
b. Maslow suggested that, as a person satisfies each level of needs, motivation shifts to satisfying the next higher level of needs
c. Maslow hypothesized that our needs are met over the years as we progress academically
d. All of the above are among Maslow’s conclusions
38. Chef Anthony Bourdain believes that his employees are satisfied each time a cook “makes a really beautiful plate of food and puts in up in the window—the pass—to be taken into the dining room.” This applies to the individuals’ ________________ needs.
d. attention to detail
39. Managers need to understand which of the following about rewards?
a. Rewards should be valued by the employee
b. Align rewards with desired behaviors and goal achievement
c. Rewards valued by one employee may not be valued by another employee
d. All of the above
40. Phung Tran is known for his demanding leadership style. He charged into the office one afternoon and demanded that a detailed report be on his desk by 5 p.m. “Otherwise,” he said, “someone will have to pay the piper.” Tran is using the _________ tactic to influence.
41. Miguel Valdez is the new manager of an exotic game hunting club. As the leader of this organization, Valdez is called on to recognize and understand his own feelings and emotions about hunting exotic game. He must also use these insights to guide his behavior toward members and employees of the club. Valdez displays __________.
a. ethical leadership
b. cognitive thinking
c. variable intelligence
d. emotional intelligence
42. Nicholas Teague is the CEO of a national chain of hairstyling salons. Teague seeks to lead his division mangers by creating opportunities for them to succeed and then removing barriers in order to release their individual potential. Teague leads according to the __________ leadership model.
a. Theory X
b. Theory Y
c. Theory Z
43. The managerial grid model was developed by ___________.
a. Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor
b. Douglas McGregor and Gary Yukl
c. Carl Jung and Lillian Gilbreath
d. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton
44. Michael Turley is the manager of the produce department of a major grocery store. Turley uses his leadership style to create a secure and comfortable atmosphere and he trusts that employees will respond with high performance. Blake and Mouton would conclude that Turley uses a __________ leadership style.
a. country club
b. middle of the road
45. Marissa Druss is a project manager. Her team is composed of five engineers who have been on the job for a short time. The engineers have begun to learn their jobs, and Druss wants to use behavior that will build employees’ confidence and maintain their enthusiasm. The Situational Leadership® Model would suggest that Druss should use a __________ style of leadership.
46. A(n) __________ leader is a person who has the ability to influence others because of his or her inspirational qualities.
47. __________ most often are managers or senior colleagues in the organization who provide advice and guidance about a variety of career-related concerns.
a. Career counselors
b. Social agents
c. Development officers
48. Lourdes Garcia is interested in a position with Compaq. Therefore, she phones to find out about the position, writes a letter, and then phones again to confirm that the letter was received. Garcia is engaging in __________.
49. Carlos Cortez knew that he had to be careful in using nonverbal expressions when interacting with his subordinates. This is due to the fact that __________ percent of the content of messages are transmitted through facial expressions and body movement.
50. Charles Cowles is very aware of his physical space and what the use of that space says about him. He is concerned with __________.
c. feng shui
51. Rebecca Waters needs to send a directive to an employee, and she wants to use a rich information channel. Waters should __________.
a. engage in a face-to-face discussion
b. engage in a telephone conversation
c. write an individually addressed letter or memo
d. send an e-mail
52. When Omar Barzoni meets with his employees, he has a habit of “tuning out” those comments he is not happy with. Barzoni is displaying the problem of __________.
b. selective perception
c. perceptual proximity
d. perceptual grouping
53. Cristina Roel worked hard to receive a promotion. She has led several seminars at which four vice presidents had an opportunity to observe her in action and hear her communications capabilities. When the vice presidents met to select a candidate for promotion, they all felt that Roel and two other women could not satisfactorily handle the position because they were not “macho” enough. The vice presidents were displaying __________.
a. conflicting assumptions
b. downward communication
d. opposing goals
54. Diana Wu has discovered that the word “privy” has at least six definitions that range from “an outhouse” to “having an interest in.” The communication barrier illustrated is a result of __________.
b. status differences
55. Two ethical issues in communications are __________.
a. computer ethics and legal compliance
b. company needs and personal interests
c. legal codes and moral ramifications
d. computer ethics and privacy
56. A __________ is a group of employees who meet regularly to identify, analyze, and propose solutions to various types of workplace problems.
a. quality circle
b. departmental unit
d. high-performance work team
57. Erica Biery is a member of a work team that schedules members’ work and vacations, rotates job tasks and makes assignments, and sets production goals. What type of team is Biery a part of?
a. cross-organizational team
b. self-managing work team
c. problem-solving team
d. functional team
58. A production team was formed last year at Vermeer Manufacturing. The team went through a period of infighting and then a period where these conflicts were resolved. Presently, the team seems to focus on getting things done. According to the group development model, the team is now in the __________ stage.
59. What is the optimal team size for innovative decision making?
a. less than 5 members
b. 5 to 9 members
c. 10 to 15 members
d. 16 members or more
60. At Enron, the culture of ___________ has been blamed for the unethical behaviors that eventually destroyed the company.
c. customer service
61. At Southwest Airlines, __________ is a shared value.
b. working overtime
c. having fun
d. on-time flights
62. A new salesperson for Mary Kay recently learned how Mary Kay Ash founded her successful company while struggling to support herself and her children as a single parent. What element of culture does this describe?
a. shared narratives
b. shared practices
c. shared assumptions
d. shared language
63. Brittany Finnell is a new employee with a major real estate developer and has noticed that her tasks, responsibilities, and authority have been very clearly defined and every one plays by a clear set of rules. What type of organizational culture has Finnell observed?
64. Your sister-in-law has just graduated from college and is looking for work in an organization with a culture that fits her commitment to experimentation, innovation, and being on the leading edge. What organizational culture will be recommended to her?
65. Jaime Hernandez is the child of recent immigrants, the first child in his family to be born in the United States. It is likely that he __________.
a. needed to rely on an interpreter for school activities
b. feels homesick
c. was strongly influenced by his parents’ home country culture
d. all of the above
66. The basic premise that companies should actively recruit job applicants to build a workforce that reflects the demographics of the qualified labor force locally is referred to as __________.
a. cultural compliance
b. progressive democracy
c. positive conservatism
d. affirmative action
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