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5 Jon Feingersh/Blend Images/Corbis Global Workplace: Issues and Trends Prologue CHAPTER 5 As we have learned in previous chapters, sociologists who...

Describe how globalization has changed the way American companies are doing business. In what ways do you believe this change has benefited American organizations and/or their customers?

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±ŚĂƉƚĞƌ ±ŽŶƚĞŶƚƐ ϱ͘ϭ tŽƌůĚͲ^LJƐƚĞŵƐ ²ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ 'ůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ϱ͘Ϯ DĂũŽƌ dƌĞŶĚƐ ŝŶ 'ůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ϱ͘ϯ /ŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ZĞĐĞŶƚ ³ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ EĂƚƵƌĂů ´ŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ ϱ͘ϰ tŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞ ³ƚŚŝĐƐ ĂŶĚ sĂůƵĞƐ ϱ͘ϱ ±ŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ĂŶĚ &ƵƚƵƌĞ tŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞ /ƐƐƵĞƐ ±ĂƐĞ ^ƚƵĚLJ͗ 'ĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ :ŽďůĞƐƐ͗ ³džƉůŽƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ±ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ 'ƌĞĂƚ ZĞĐĞƐƐŝŽŶ 5 Global Workplace: Issues and Trends Jon Feingersh/Blend Images/Corbis
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CHAPTER 5 Prologue WƌŽůŽŐƵĞ As we have learned in previous chapters, sociologists who study the workplace use many different perspectives to analyze different levels of interaction between society and the workplace. Whereas Chapter 4 explored social issues that impact workers from a per- sonal or micro level, in Chapter 5 we will view the workplace from primarily meso and macro levels to investigate how globalization is shaping the postindustrial American workplace. We will further explore its impact on both employers and employees and will consider some new ethical issues that have confronted companies and individuals in the 21st-century globalized workplace. ϱ͘ϭ tŽƌůĚͲ^LJƐƚĞŵƐ ±ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ 'ůŽďĂůŝnjĂƚŝŽŶ O Ŷ ƚŚĞ ŵĂĐƌŽ ůĞǀĞů͕ ŐůŽďĂůŝnjĂƚŝŽŶ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ǀŝĞǁĞĚ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚͲƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚ ďLJ ƐƵĐŚ ƐŽĐŝŽůŽŐŝƐƚƐ ĂƐ /ŵŵĂŶƵĞů tĂůůĞƌƐƚĞŝŶ ;ϭϵϯϬʹͿ͘ tŽƌůĚͲƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ƚŚĞŽƌŝƐƚƐ ǀŝĞǁ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ĂƐ ŽŶĞ ŐůŽďĂů ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĚŝǀŝĚĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ͕ ƐĞŵŝͲ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ;tĂůůĞƌƐƚĞŝŶ͕ ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ ±ŽƌĞ͕ ^ĞŵŝƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͕ ĂŶĚ WĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ EĂƚŝŽŶƐ ±ŽƌĞŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĂƌĞƚŚĞǁĞĂůƚŚŝĞƐƚŝŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨŝŶĐŽŵĞĂŶĚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͖ ƚŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƉŽǁĞƌ͘ dŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŝƐ ĂŶ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŽĨ Ă ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ͘ ²ŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ŚŝŐŚůLJ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůŝnjĞĚ ĂŶĚ͕ ŐŝǀĞŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ ĐĂŶ ƚĂŬĞ Ă ůĞĂĚĞƌƐŚŝƉ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ŶĞǁ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͘ /ŵŵĂŶƵĞů tĂůůĞƌƐƚĞŝŶ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ƐƚŝƉƵůĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĐŽŵƉĞƚĞ ĨŽƌ ĚŽŵŝŶĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŝǀŝƚLJ͕ ƚƌĂĚĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ĨŝŶĂŶĐĞ͘ dŚĞ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ŶĂƚŝŽŶ ŝŶ Ăůů ƚŚƌĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐ Ăƚ ŽŶĐĞ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ƉŽǁĞƌĨƵů ;tĂůůĞƌƐƚĞŝŶ͕ ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚĞ ƉĂƐƚ ϲϬ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŚĂƐ ĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ Ăůů ƚŚƌĞĞ ĐĂƚĞŐŽͲ ƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚƵƐ ŚĂƐ ŚĞůĚ ƚŚĞ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƉŽǁĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƐƚĂƚƵƐ ĂŵŽŶŐ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ͘ tĂůůĞƌƐƚĞŝŶ ĂƌŐƵĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ůĞĂĚ ƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶ ĐĂŶ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĨůƵĐƚƵĂƚŝŶŐ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ŵŽĚĞƌŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŝǀŝƚLJ͕ ƚƌĂĚĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ĨŝŶĂŶĐĞ͘ hŶůŝŬĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƉĂƐƚ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞĚ ǁŽƌůĚ ůĞĂĚĞƌƐŚŝƉ ĨŽƌ ĐĞŶƚƵƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĚŽŵŝŶĂŶĐĞ ǁĂƐ ůĂƌŐĞůLJ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ďLJ ŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ ĂŶĚ ůĂŶĚŵĂƐƐ͕ ŵŽĚĞƌŶ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶ ƐƚĂƚƵƐ ŝƐ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ďĞ ǀĂƌŝĂďůĞ ͘ dŚĞ ŵŽĚĞů ƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ƐŽĐŝŽůŽŐŝƐƚ ²͘ tƌŝŐŚƚ DŝůůƐ ƚŽ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞ ƌĞůĂƚŝŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ ŽĨ ƉŽǁĞƌ ǁŽƵůĚ ĂůŝŐŶ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŚŝƐ ĚĞƐĐƌŝƉƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽǁĞƌ ĞůŝƚĞ͘ tŚĞƌĞĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƉŽǁĞƌ ĞůŝƚĞ ŚĂǀĞ ŝŶĨůƵĞŶĐĞ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚŝǀĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ĚŽŵŝŶĂŶƚ ŝŶĨůƵĞŶĐĞ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͘ ±Ɛ Ă ƌĞƐƵůƚ͕ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĚƌŝǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ǁŚĂƚ ŐŽŽĚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ ±ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ƉĂƌĂůůĞů ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽǁĞƌ ĞůŝƚĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŶŽŶĨŝŶĂŶĐŝĂů ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĞdžƉĞƌƚŝƐĞ ĂŶĚ ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ͘ ±Ɛ Ă ƌĞƐƵůƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƐƚŝƚƵƚŝŽŶĂůŝnjĞĚ ƐŽĐŝĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ŽĨ ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶƐ ŵĂLJ ĞdžƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ŚƵŵĂŶ ƌŝŐŚƚƐ ƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƚŝǀĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŵĂLJ ŝŶĨůƵĞŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽŶƐ ŝŶ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ Žƌ ƉŽůŝƚŝĐĂů ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ ƉƵƚ ŽŶ ĂŶ ŽĨĨĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŶĂƚŝŽŶ͘ Mark Williamson/Oxford Scientific/photolibrary dŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŝƐ ĂŶ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŽĨ Ă ĐŽƌĞ ŶĂƚŝŽŶ͘ /ƚƐ ǁĞĂůƚŚ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŵĂŬĞ ŝƚ Ă ůĞĂĚĞƌ ŝŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŶĞǁ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͘
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Prior to globalization, decision making in the US companies was centralized. But after the
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