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chapter 5 Thinkstock Tribes II: Pastoral Societies GOALS By the end of the chapter, you should be able to do the following things:

watch "Blood bonds" ... http://digital.films.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?Token=40833&aid=18596&Plt=FOD&loid=0&w=320&h=240&ref=
Describe the correlation between arranged marriage, economic exchanges surrounding marriage (bridewealth, bride service, dowry, etc.), status of women, family pressures, and other factors you can think of and the stability of marriage. Based on your reading of the textbook and the film, what are the disadvantages of different forms of marriages? Do you think they can be as successful as marriages of choice? Which form of marriage do you have the hardest time understanding?

Reflect on marriage and divorce in current North American societies. What factors contribute to the stability of marriages in our culture? What factors contribute to stability of marriage in the cultures shown in the film? And lastly, what factors of the cultures in the film could contribute to the stability of marriage in our culture? And vise versa?
minimum 200 words in length. Please support your claims with examples from the required resources
chapter 5 Tribes II: Pastoral Societies Defne pastoralism Compare and contrast pastoral, horticultural and Foraging societies ±urther develop your understanding oF the sexual division oF labor Grasp the influence oF gender politics, including the disempowerment oF women in many pastoral societies and the causes and eFFects oF male bias in Western culture Begin to understand and appreciate the rites oF passage Understand the signifcance oF age in the division oF labor Realize how language can help us understand cultural history Understand the devastating impact oF Western society on pastoral cultures GOALS By the end of the chapter, you should be able to do the following things: © Thinkstock
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CHAPTER 5 TRIBES II: PASTORAL SOCIETIES section 5.1 5.1 INTRODUCTION I n this chapter we will explore animal domestication and examine some of the cultural prac- tices of pastoral peoples. As discussed in Chapter 4, a tribe is a sociopolitical designation of a people whose economy is based on nonintensive food production, who reside in group- ings based on common descent, and who lack formal government (Kottak, 2007). Horticultur- alists are one type of nonintensive food-producing tribal society; pastoralists are another. Pas- toralism is a subsistence strategy involved in herding animals such as sheep, goats, camels, alpaca, reindeer, and cattle. Pastoralists depend on animals for their survival, spending much of their time and energy caring for them and subsisting on the products derived from them. For pastoralists, daily and seasonal life moves with the cycle of their animals. The importance of animal products varies among cultures. In some, animal products are supplementary to plant production; in others domesticated animals contribute a sub- stantial amount to their diet—eggs, milk, blood, and meat—as well as hides, wool, and transportation. The archaeological record suggests that the first nomadic pastoral societies lived between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago in the southern Levant (an area in western Asia that includes Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and parts of Iraq). About 7,000 years ago, pastoral- ism was practiced in Northern Africa. The number of pastoralists worldwide is estimated to range between 100 and 200 mil- lion (Davies & Hatfield, 2007). Most pastoralists can be found in the deserts, grasslands, mountains, and tundra. Lack of irrigation and short growing seasons make cultivation difficult in these parts of the world. Thus, until recently, pastoralists did not have to worry about losing pasture lands to agriculture. Table 5.1: Preferred Animal by Region and Ethnic Group Geographic region Ethnic groups Primary stock Environment Mongolia and Central Asia Mongols*, Kazakhs* Horses, sheep, camels Grasslands, severe winters Tibet, Western China, Nepal Tibetans Yak, sheep, goats Arid, low tempera- ture, high al±tude East Africa Maasai, Nuer, Dinka, Turkana, Bororo, Jie Ca²le, goats Dry savannah Middle East / Eastern Mediterranean Turkoman*, Pathan*, Basseri*, Baluch* Sheep and goats Semi-arid, hilly Northern Africa Bedouin Camel Arid Northern Scandinavia Saami, Tungus, Chukchi Reindeer Taiga (boreal forest, tundra) Peruvian Highlands Inca Alpaca and llama High al±tude Plains United States Plains Indians (for example, Apache, Cheyenne, Comanche, Sioux) Horses Semi-arid prairie Southwestern United States Navajo Sheep Arid *Ethnic groups with a chiefdom form of political organization are described in Chapter 6.
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Marriage is one of the most important things in any person’s life there are various types of
marriage system and marriage customs in this diverse Earth. There are also various things affects
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