1.In Petit v. City of Chicago, the court relied on the decision in Grutter v. Bollinger to determine the legality of the actions of the City of Chicago in administering tests used to promote police officers to the rank of sergeant. Which of the following was NOT a reasoning relied upon by the judges?
A. Standardizing test results by race is equivalent to race norming and is therefore unconstitutional
B. The City of Chicago was able to show a compelling interest in diversity, justifying Chicago's affirmative action plan
C. Adjusting the test scores to justify the increased percentage of minority officer promotions eliminated an advantage that white officers had and did not create an arbitrary advantage to minority officers
D. Chicago's affirmative action plan regarding this test was limited in time and narrowly construed as required in order to be valid
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