I have enclosed three case studies. Please identify the basic approach that's used in each study, the sources of data used in each case study and methodology and process followed in the cases(to the extent that it can be determined from the case summary. Also identify which of the three cases that's most useful and summarize all of the findings in a two page APA formatted paper with references. I have uploaded all supporting documentsShow entire documentShow entire document
“Seeing is believing! (Case Study) What you see depends very much on what you look for.” John Lubbock So far, the team from Added Value Paris have explored the marketing opportunities provided by sound , smell , touch and taste . In the last of a series of five articles, we’re focusing on sight, as well as what happens when you combine all five senses together… More than what we see, it’s what it means to us that is important The eyes are the body’s most stimulated sense organs, with more than two-thirds of our sense cells located in our eyes. In fact, our retinas contain some 100 million photoreceptors that transmit messages to our brains, so it is perhaps unsurprising that scientists estimate that some 83% of the information we retain is received visually. Functionally, sight helps us perceive contrasts and differences between, for example, small and big, light and dark, or thin and thick. However, we also use those visual cues to make up our minds and evaluate our surroundings. Shape, symmetry, colour and materials are all triggers of deeper meaning, most being culturally-biased and ever evolving. These signals influence our visual assessment on a daily basis and create unconscious biases, which in turn impact our behaviors. For example, an experiment showed that men dressed in black during meetings were perceived as more assertive, aggressive and intellectually sharper, while those dressed in pale color suits conveyed more friendliness, but also weaker intelligence (all the more reason to choose your work clothes very carefully each morning!). It seems that symmetric shapes are easier for the brain to comprehend than asymmetric ones, as their perceived centre of gravity is easier to locate. However, they also appear less interesting. Conversely, our sight can’t find the center of gravity of asymmetric shapes and our brain is more actively stimulated. Having a clear understanding of your brands’ codes is essential With extended product offerings and an increased pace of life, immediacy of impact will prove to be key for brands. Sight is the first sense to come into play as consumers near a store, and many experiments have shown that is also central to product selection: 40% of all perfume purchase decisions are estimated to be based on the design of the bottle. Savvier consumers are increasingly expecting more visual sophistication from brands and as visual codes gain in maturity, brands will have to work hard to cue finer nuances. However, since our sight is the most solicited of all our senses, and is ever more in demand, we may well be nearing visual saturation. We are confronted with an ever expanding range of gimmicks and optical illusions – 3D, augmented reality – making it difficult to manage disruptiveness in an overly visual world. Could visual silence be one of the ways to cut through the noise? It’s important to understand the visual landscape of your category A major challenge in optimizing the visual communication of a brand is to ensure that we are able to take into account consumers’ daily habitat and the overload of visual stimulation to which they are exposed; it is important to confront both the initial visual assessments of a brand and the reality of the experience, in context. In a world with ever-renewing codes and signifiers, visual future-proofing is an aspect that brands cannot afford to neglect. Semiotic analysis can often seem complicated, but a focus on the cultural expression of a brand code (rather than on an academic dissection) can reveal the unwritten rules for a brand to abide to. That’s why it is important to explore ‘raw culture’ for insight and. We need to look for patterns across a variety of creative genres, forms, markets and categories that collectively make up the cultural fabric used—typically subconsciously—by consumers to make sense of brands, products and communication. And finally to deconstruct the cultural codes at play to help us understand the meanings at play (what’s old, what’s dominant and what’s new and emergent) in a particular category (e.g. cheese) or related to a cultural topic (e.g. authenticity). If you’d like the team at Added Value to help you decode what your category looks like, please don’t hesitate to get in touch.
Footnote: the curious case of synaesthesia We’ve chosen to look at each of the five senses one by one. But imagine how powerful it could be to activate all five senses at once to create a multi-faceted emotional experience for your brand. For this, we can look for inspiration from a real-life neurological condition called synaesthesia. As many as three or four per cent of the population are said to experience this condition, in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to an automatic, involuntary experience in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. It manifests itself through inter-modal experiences across senses such as: a sound triggering a concurrent color experience (e.g. a clicking evoking the color red) or a touch-olfactory convergence (e.g. an image of a chair being linked with a banana smell). Although most of us don’t experience such extreme connections between the senses, a new study published in Flavour , by Oxford University’s Vanessa Harrar and Charles Spence, reveals that something as basic as the utensils you use can very much affect the way you experience everything from the sweetness to the expensiveness of food. They report that blue utensils make food seem saltier, lighter utensils make food seem richer and clashing, and contrasting food and utensils affect how much people like food. So what if the same was true for your brand’s use of the senses? Through our journey exploring the senses, we’ve seen many examples that show that creating an engaging brand experience means knowing how to tell a story that uses colours, aromas, sounds and sensations as part of a multifaceted and multi-layered narrative. However, where and when you should be seeking out congruency across all five senses as opposed to opposed to providing unexpected sensory contradictions is less obvious. Inevitably, it will involve much trial and error… but our view is that brands that have the courage to make the leap into the new worlds of haptic technology (touch) and flavor replicators (like the Madeline or le Whaf), or who delve into sound theory and semiotics to develop stronger visual and sound signatures will be amongst the winners in the race to be amongst the world’s best loved brands. Written by Mark Whiting, Sandrine McClure, Directors , Alexandre Richard, Project Director , James Horton, Intern , Marina Cozzika, Public Relations. - See more at: http://www.added-value.com/source/2013/10/seeing-is-believing/#more-9451
(Case Study) “Sounds like good sense There is no feeling, except the extremes of fear and grief that does not find relief in music. “ George Eliot In the third of our series prepared by the Added Value team in Paris, exploring the marketing opportunities offered by each of the five senses, we tune into those provided by hearing… How does it sound? Sound comes from the vibration or motion of an object and these vibrations send out waves through the air, which are then captured by our ears. It is a highly adaptable tool for influencing emotions: sequential, it can range from a single punctual note to a lengthy partition, or even music. Although we think of many sounds as having universal meanings (the pop of a champagne cork signals celebration, the sound of a V12 motor revving up signals power, excitement and speed), these meanings are learnt and sound sensitivity varies across cultures. At a macro level, the world’s ears are split in two schools. In the Western World, the diatonic scale (Do–Re–Mi–Fa– Sol–La–Ti–Do) has been the foundation of the European musical tradition since the Renaissance; it sounds like the only logical and harmonious sound scale for many of us. In Asian cultures (but also in Celtic, Hungarian and West African music), however, the pentatonic scale (with five notes per octave) is more familiar, but can sound chaotic and unsettling to a Western ear. Age is also a factor in sound sensitivity, with children being more sensitive to a greater range of sounds than adults. They have the capacity to recognize and memorize a greater variety of sounds, as shown by their increased capacity for language learning or the assimilation of foreign accents. But this sensitivity can also be turned into a disadvantage… In the UK, some town centers have tried diffusing unpleasant, sharp sounds, only audible to teenagers, after 10pm to act as a curfew and make them leave the area! The impact of sound Sounds affect us on three macro levels. First of all, they can influence us physiologically, actually increasing or decreasing our heart rate, literally giving us the shivers. The healing powers of sound are of increasing interest to scientists and sound therapy leverages sound and music to rebalance the inner vibrations of the human body, a state believed to prevent illness. Secondly, sound is capable of triggering an array of emotional responses, for example trust or suspicion. You may have heard of the test that showed that when negative news was read with a happy voice, or positive news with a sad voice, the voice was not perceived as reliable. This might be explained by an innate ability in humans to uncover personalities and feelings and on a practical level for brands, it notably shows the importance of co-coordinating sound with brand image, context or time of day.
Finally, sound can influence us mentally, leading to conscious or unconscious associations with ideas and concepts. It can distort our perception of a price, of a place or of time. For example, music with a slow-tempo has been shown to make us perceive waiting times to be shorter. Fast music may decrease spending in a retail environment, but for restaurants, more concerned with increasing the spend-per-customer ratio, slower music creates longer dining times. Essentially, sound therefore has the powerful capability to deeply influence our behaviors, impacting the pace at which we walk, consume or even how long we’ll stay in a store or restaurant. There are many easy-to-implement ways of deploying sound So what are the brand opportunities that lie within our sense of hearing? It is a sense that can either be effective for very short term stimulation or one that can install deeply-rooted emotions: while a repeated jingle can effectively work on awareness (think of the Windows’ signature sound, the 4 chords of which mirror the 4-color logo, something you hear every time you switch on your PC), a proprietary piece of music can help associate deeply-rooted emotions with a brand or a brand experience. Studies have shown that brands that incorporate sound onto the home pages of their websites are 76% more likely to obtain repeat Internet traffic – and that brands with music that “fit” their brand identity are 96% likelier to prompt memory recall. Sound allows for easy, immediate and tactical usage, since it can be activated almost surgically at specific touch points. This is because sound can be easily and consistently reproduced: unlike other senses that demand more effort to be deployed in a uniform way across touch points (touch, smell), sound travels easily through time and across places. Finally, it’s interesting to note that hearing is a sense that can also be deployed “negatively”: for example in-store silence is a key way to disrupt sound conventions in a world constantly polluted by sound nuisance But few brands are exploiting sound effectively If sound is an awareness champion, helping consumers to memorize a brand, a product or a place, it is also an under-exploited sense: we are exposed to sounds everywhere but, globally, it has been estimated that less than one in ten brands have a clearly-defined sound identity. French underwear brand DIM is often cited as an example of the perfect use of sound equity. It features a core musical gimmick of a few proprietary notes inspired by the movie The Fox (1967), but one which has been consistently leveraged over time and constantly refreshed with different variations. The brand used this to build very high top of mind awareness, while maintaining a very low saturation point. (you can sing and dance along here… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rDuiU2R33NQ). Even if sound is only used tactically, it seems so easy to do, with immediate returns on investment. Take this example from IKEA in building in-store satisfaction. Despite its clear visual signage, IKEA repeatedly saw its customers ask their staff where shopping carts were located in the store. To solve this issue, they played the sound of the shopping carts hitting each other close to the “pick it yourself” area to help consumers better navigate the store.
(Case Study) Tasty opportunities “Taste enables us to distinguish all that has a flavor from that which is insipid.” Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin. In the Added Value Paris team’s second article about the senses, we turn our attention to perhaps the most commercially researched sense, that of taste. But are marketers, especially of non-food brands, really exploiting all the opportunities that this sense provides?… Our personal taste It will surprise few people to learn that taste is personal. Individuals don’t react identically to the same flavour, which makes taste the most intimate of our senses. It seems that our DNA, as well as what our mother ate during her pregnancy, are highly determining factors on our sense of taste, along with cultural factors. Children experience more tastes than adults because they have more taste buds, including ones on the inside of their cheeks, a fact which explains the seemingly hypnotic appeal of sweets and candy to kids. Women also have more taste buds than men and are generally more sensitive to tastes as a result, while the taste buds of the over 50s renew less often, leading to decreasing taste sensitivity as people age. Our taste buds can rapidly be “trained” to appreciate (or reject less strongly) certain flavours through repeat exposure. Indeed, the makers of Parodontax toothpaste go so far as to put a series of unhappy to happy faces on their packaging to illustrate that the particularly salty taste of their gum health paste can quickly pass from “yuk!” to “yum!” over the course of 15 days. Incredibly, our tongues feature approximately 10,000 taste buds that enable us to detect five core tastes: salted, sweet, sour, bitter and umami – a savoury taste present in soy, seaweed and fish sauce. A sixth taste, that of fat, is currently being debated by French researchers and could soon join the list of official senses. Each taste comes with its own particular associations: we link sweet flavours with calories, salted ones with vitamins and minerals, and bitter ones are associated with poison. Taste perception is highly influenced by its lexicon, and restaurateurs have long known that giving more evocative and descriptive names to dishes can increase their sales. Our sense of taste is also heavily reliant on its visual context: a visual contrast between food and its plate (e.g. white fish on a dark plate) is known to increase eating pleasure. Why does taste matter? Apart from the obvious pleasure of enjoying our food, the state of our sense of taste is closely linked to our general state of health. People who suffer from ageusia (sense deprivation), beyond a general lack of appetite and weight loss, are commonly prone to symptoms of depression and stress.
On the other hand, it has been proven that “supertasters” (those who are more sensitive to different tastes) are generally 20 percent thinner than the general population: with their heightened sensitivity to sugar and dairy fats, supertasters are less likely than other people to crave junk foods. The very act of eating is itself linked to a wide array of emotions: self-reward, forgetting, relaxing, celebrating – and of course hunger. Taste is a sense that fosters togetherness, hence our desire to share meals with others for enhanced pleasure. Taste is a ‘short range’ sense, unlike sight, sound or smell (which can operate at longer distances), hence why it is linked to stopping power. Taste appreciation usually implies pausing, staying put and spending more time somewhere, a fact which gave rise to the popularity of in- store food courts and restaurants. So taste matters because it is an emotionally powerful sense that can create engaging moments and experiences, and even stop us in our tracks. A white space in the marketing of non-food brands We live in societies and times where interest in food, cuisine and taste is paramount, making it easier to entice consumers to embark upon a tasting journey. The rise of aspirational connoisseurship and intensified product pairings are another sign of this trend. But taste remains a big white space in the sensory marketing of non-food brands. Taste is a sense which is leveraged by very few brands: only some 16% of the Fortune 1000 brands are estimated to incorporate this sense in their mix. This is because there is a common belief that taste is reserved to food and drink brands and brands whose core equity is not rooted in food tend not to venture into taste. But perhaps they should, even if it means stretching outside of their usual zones of activity? After all, taste can be accessed through adjacent senses. For example, we strongly associate colors with tastes: red and orange are sweet, green and yellow are sour, while white tends to be salty. So what could be taste’s contribution to a non-food/drink related brand? What cues should such a brand try to convey? For inspiration as to what’s possible, check out creative think tank Visionnaire’s issue number 47 where they collaborated with international Flavours and Fragrances (IFF) in a project that aimed to evoke deeply conceptual ideas through taste. The experience was comprised of multiple edible strips (and specially commissioned artwork) referring to concepts ranging from Luxury (fresh pine cone tips) to Guilt (leather and chocolate) or even Mother (condensed milk) and Youth (cherry licquorice). More down-to-earth, but highly original, Fanta’s ‘Drink your Magazine’ campaign used edible paper to pre-seed their product’s taste before the actual product experience. Consumers were invited to tear off a piece of the magazine and taste the flavour of Fanta. And during a recent Kenzo catwalk show, guests were given patisseries designed by Lenôtre so they could “taste” the creativity of the brand’s designs as well as see it.
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