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The "labor relations process" occurs when: government regulates labor-management activities.

1. The "labor relations process" occurs when:
a. government regulates labor-management activities.
b. management and the exclusive bargaining agent (the union) engage in the joint determination and administration of work rules.
c. historical aspects of organized labor affect current decision.
d. unions find international applications.
e. privately held companies go public.
2. The "focal point" of labor relations represents:
a. union and management officials.
b. public opinion.
c. work rules.
d. the government.
e. all of these.
3. When the North American Free Trade Act (NAFTA) was passed, it:
a. was unsuccessfully opposed by organized labor.
b. contained a 15-year phase-in to increase tariffs between Canada, Mexico, and the US.
c. substantially lowered the wages of Mexican employees, such as truck drivers, in comparison to their US counterparts.
d. all of these
e. contained a 15-year phase-in to increase tariffs between Canada, Mexico, and the US and substantially lowered the wages of Mexican employees, such as truck drivers, in comparison to their US counterparts.
4. The decline in union membership has been attributed to:
a. structural changes in the labor force
b. improved management practices in organizations
c. political and legal conditions governing the workplace
d. all of these
e. none of these adequately explain the decline in union membership
5. The Local Assembly was the basic unit in the Knights of Labor since it:
a. could veto any matter raised by the Executive Board.
b. provided the major source of members.
c. was often involved in a key KOL activity—the strike.
d. all of these
e. could veto any matter raised by the Executive Board and provided the major source of members.
6. The AFL represented:
a. one big union that eliminated the identity of unions joining the AFL.
b. a Knights of Labor committee that handled the strategic planning duties.
c. a group that supported the basic philosophy of the IWW.
d. a federation or service organization that unions could join and still retain their separate identities and collective bargaining concerns.
e. a Knights of Labor committee that handled the strategic planning duties and a group that supported the basic philosophy of the IWW.


7. The Haymarket Riot:
a. represented a protest for the eight-hour day.
b. was over agricultural subsidies which were not given as promised.
c. led to the downfall of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
d. represented a physical clash between two labor organizations the AFL and the CIO.
e. none of these
8. The main reason the Clayton Act did not prove to be organized labor's Magna Charta was that:
a. labor of a human being was interpreted by the Courts to be an article of commerce.
b. labor unions were considered to operate in interstate commerce.
c. it made it easier for employers to seek injunctions against unions.
d. employer activities, such as blacklisting of employees and discharge of union leaders, were not illegal.
e. all of these
9. Employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act include:
a. the right to form unions.
b. the right to bargain collectively through agents of their own choosing.
c. the right to boycott any employers who may be interfering with union activities.
d. all of these.
e. the right to form unions and the right to bargain collectively through agents of their own choosing.
10. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of:
a. race, sex, religion, and age.
b. handicap, sex, race, age, and religion.
c. race, age, sex, religion, and national origin.
d. race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.
e. sexual orientation.
11. When the NLRB establishes an appropriate bargaining unit, it constitutes the "community of interests." Which of the following factor(s) does the NLRB consider?
a. commonality of wages, working conditions, training, and skill
b. history of bargaining
c. physical proximity of the world locations
d. transfers between facilities
e. all of these
12. Contract negotiations can result in which of the following outcomes?
a. a lock-in by the union to force management into a contract settlement
b. decertification of the union as the employees' bargaining representative
c. a voluntarily negotiated contract settlement
d. a lock-in by management to force the union into a contract settlement
e. all of these
13. Which one of the following should not be a relevant consideration when selecting members for a management negotiating team?
a. perceived need for an individual's skills and abilities
b. whether the individual occupies a line or staff managerial position within the firm
c. political considerations
d. desired size of the bargaining team (i.e., number of team members)
14. Which one of the following would not be a characteristic of a distributive bargaining approach?
a. a focus on cost/benefit analysis to determine the acceptability of contract proposals
b. a focus on maximizing your own party's interests
c. an attempt to structure communication patterns during negotiations to maintain focus on your own party's proposals
d. an effort to identify multiple alternatives capable of achieving a mutually satisfactory bargaining outcome rather than focusing on narrowing the gap between each party's established position on issues in dispute
e. none of these are characteristics of a distributive bargaining approach
15. Under the bargaining power model, when is the union's bargaining power increased?
a. it costs more for management to agree than to disagree with the union
b. it costs more for management to disagree than agree with the union
c. it costs more for the union to agree than disagree with management
d. it costs less for the union to agree than disagree with management
e. it costs less for management to disagree than to agree with the union
16. "Mandatory" subjects of bargaining:
a. must be negotiated until agreement is reached if one party raises the issue.
b. must be negotiated if one party raises the issue.
c. do not have to be negotiated if one party raises the issue.
d. mandates that a federal mediator will resolve the differences between the parties if they can’t reach agreement on one or more bargaining subjects.
e. mandates that a federal mediator must approve the agreement.


17. Federal legislation has been enacted to protect workers against wage discrimination (e.g., Equal Pay Act of 1963, Civil Rights Acts of 1964and 1991, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967). These laws prohibit paying male employees more than female employees unless the wage difference is justified on the basis of:
a. skill, effort, responsibility.
b. seniority.
c. performance.
d. working conditions
e. all of these
18. Payment for work that is not needed, workers working at reduced speed, and workers duplicating the work of others are examples of:
a. outsourcing.
b. subcontracting.
c. featherbedding.
d. hot cargo.
e. outsourcing with subscontracting.








19. Which of the following safety and health standards are applied by OSHA across all industries?
a. employers are required to grant employees access to the employee’s medical records maintained by the employer or any records concerning the employee’s exposure to toxic substances.
b. employees have the right to refuse any job assignment where there is a potential for injury.
c. employees must be reimbursed for any purchase they make of protective equipment.
d. employees must maintain an injury/illness log to record the occurrence of off-the-job injuries.
e. all of these are standards applied by OSHA across all industries
20. Since passage of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA):
a. labor force participation rates have increased for moderately disabled persons but remained low for severely disabled persons.
b. employers have lost the majority of federal court cases involving ADA claims.
c. employers are required to make an accommodation for a disabled person even if that action would violate a term or condition of an existing labor agreement (e.g., seniority rights).
d. all of these
e. none of these
21. Which federal agency is authorized under the LMRA to resolve jurisdictional disputes?
a. National Labor Relations Board
b. Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
c. National Mediation Board
d. National Joint Board
e. Department of Labor
22. In relation to a mediator, an arbitrator has:
a. less power, but more flexibility.
b. more power and more responsibility.
c. more power and greater innovation.
d. less power and more appeal.
e. less power and less flexibility.
23. A supervisor who believes an employee's grievance is not a contractual violation should:
a. assist the employee in writing the grievance so that it conforms to the specifications of the grievance form and the labor agreement.
b. accept the employee's grievance, then answer the grievance in accordance with provisions of the labor agreement.
c. refuse to accept the employee's grievance.
d. consult with the union shop steward and demand proof of a contractual violation.
e. consult with the company’s labor attorney before accepting the grievance.






24. The "common law of the shop" means that the arbitrator:
a. disregards the past practice and intent of the parties, relying entirely on the labor
agreement.
b. is concerned with how the decision affects the parties to the labor agreement, even
though that decision might be different from another company having a different
labor agreement.
c. relies on decisions obtained from other arbitrators and companies having different
labor agreements to establish principles common to the overall industrial
community.
d. all of these
e. none of these
25. An "ideal" or good arbitrator's decision:
a. is usually long, at least 50 pages.
b. focuses on the losing party (the union or management presenter), addressing that
individual's arguments.
c. is a somewhat personal, informal note to the grievant.
d. is given to the parties months after the hearing so they have had a chance to cool down.
e. none of these

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