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9 Project Management Answers to Questions 9-1. CPM/PERT is popular because it provides a picture of the steps of a project, it is easy for managers...

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Research the following topics related to Project Management:

  1. Gantt Chart
  2. Project Controls
  3. Project Planning
  4. of the topics listed compose three paragraphs describing the topics, one paragraph per selected topic, based on the course material and additional research you conduct online.


Russell, R. S., & Taylor, B. W. (2014). Operations and Supply Chain Management (8th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

9 Project Management Answers to Questions 9-1. CPM/PERT is popular because it provides a picture of the steps of a project, it is easy for managers and participants to understand, and it is easy to apply. 9-2. The goal is to show the precedence relationship of activities in a project. 9-3. A dummy activity is used in an ADA network to show a precedence relationship without the passage of time. It is used to complete a precedence relationship so that two activities will not have the same start and end nodes. 9-4. The critical path is the longest path in the network. It can be computed by summing the activity times along each path and then seeing which path is the longest. It also is the path with no slack available. 9-5. Slack is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the overall project duration. It is computed by subtracting the earliest start time for an activity from the latest start time or the earliest fin- ish time from the latest finish time for an activity. 9-6. The mean activity time is computed as ( 4 ) 6, t a m b   where a is the optimistic activity time, m is the most likely time, and b is the pessimistic time. The variance is computed as 2 2 [( ) 6] . v b a 9-7. Total project variance is computed by summing the variances of the critical path activities. 9-8. The purpose of project crashing is to shorten the project duration at the least possible cost. 9-9. See which activity on the critical path has the minimum crash cost, and reduce this activity duration by the maximum amount or until another path becomes critical. If more than one path is critical, both paths must be reduced by the same amount simultaneously. Repeat this process until the crashing objective is reached. 9-10. The preference should depend on the project, including the perceived degrees of variability in project ac- tivities, the ability to determine probabilistic time estimates, and the degree to which probabilistic analy- sis is required. 9-11. The Gantt chart is a graphical technique with a bar or time line displayed for each activity in the project. However, while it will indicate the precedence relationships between activities, these relationships are usually not as easy to discern (i.e., visualize) as with a network. 9-12. Indirect costs include the cost for facilities, equipment, and machinery, interest on investment, utilities, labor, personnel costs, etc. Direct costs are financial penalties for not completing a project on time. In general, project crashing costs and indirect costs have an inverse relationship; crashing costs are highest when the project is shortened, whereas indirect costs increase as the project duration increases. 9-13. A heavy reliance by the project manager on the network can mask errors in the precedence relationships or missing activities can be overlooked. Attention to critical path activities can be excessive to the point of neglecting other crucial project activities. Obtaining both deterministic and probabilistic time estimates can be difficult. The time estimates can be overly optimistic or pessimistic. 9-14. For an activity-on-node network, nodes represent project activities and branches show precedence rela - tionships, whereas on an activity-on-arrow network, branches represent activities and nodes are events specifying the end of one activity and the beginning of another. 9-15. The project team consists of a group of individuals selected because of their special skills, expertise, and experience related to the project. Project planning includes the identification of all project activities and their precedence relationships the determination of activity times, the determination of project duration, comparison of the project time with objectives, and the determination of resource requirements to meet objectives. Project control includes making sure all activities have been identified, making sure the activi- ties are completed in their proper sequence, identifying resources as they are required, and adjusting the
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schedule to reflect changes. 9-16. The WBS depends on the “project” the student uses. Figure 9.2 should be used as a guideline. 9-17. Work Breakdown Structure for Dinner Project 9-18. Student answer based on project selected. 9-19. Student answer based on country selected.
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Chapter 9 Project Management Russell and Taylor Operations and Supply Chain Management, 8th Edition
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Lecture Outline Project Planning – Slide 5 Project Scheduling – Slide 18 Project Control – Slide 21 CPM/PERT – Slide 22 Probabilistic Activity Times – Slide 34 Microsoft Project – Slide 46 Project Crashing and Time-Cost Trade-off – Slide 56 9-2 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
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PRINTED BY: [email protected] Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher's prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted. CHAPTER 9 : Project Management © BanksPhotos/Istock photo LEARNING OBJECTIVES Yurchyks/Shutterstock AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO: Discuss the project planning process, including planning tools, evaluation methods, and key elements.
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Discuss the benefits of and strategies for dealing with diverse project groups. Explain the basics of project scheduling and the use of Gantt charts. Define enterprise project management and discuss the key elements in project control. Develop and analyze both deterministic probabilistic and project networks. Use Microsoft Project for network analysis. Determine and explain project crashing and time­cost tradeoffs. WEB RESOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE OM TOOLS SOFTWARE ANIMATED DEMO PROBLEMS INTERNET EXERCISES ONLINE PRACTICE QUIZZES MICROSOFT PROJECT LECTURE SLIDES IN POWERPOINT VIRTUAL TOURS COMPANY AND RESOURCE WEBLINKS PROJECTS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY IN DENIM JEANS PRODUCTION Sustainability is currently one of the most popular areas for project development and management among companies in the denim jeans industry. There are significant opportunities to engage in projects aimed at achieving sustainability goals throughout the denim jeans supply chain from cotton growers to denim jeans customers, and beyond. Cotton growers have undertaken projects to reduce water consumption for irrigation, use beneficial insects instead of chemical insecticides to control pests, improve farming practices to reduce the amount of chemicals used to grow cotton, and use farmland more productively to reduce the land area required to meet world cotton demand. Textile production consumes over 2.5 percent of the world’s total water use. Environmentally conscious denim companies have engaged in projects to conserve water and reduce water pollution among its global denim suppliers. Levi Strauss, the first denim jeans company to establish global water­quality guidelines for its suppliers, has undertaken a number of sustainability projects aimed at water conservation and reducing water pollution, including projects encouraging customers to reduce water usage in cleaning their jeans, which accounts for almost 50 percent of the water used during the life cycle of a pair of jeans. Gap, Inc., has embarked on projects to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in its U.S. operations. It has developed a program that requires companies in its global supply chain that launder its denim in the finishing process to properly treat waste­water before it’s discharged into the environment. At the end of the denim jeans supply chain, one of the most unique sustainability projects has been the recycling of old jeans into a green, clean, and effective insulation product. Recycled denim insulation can be used anywhere fiberglass insulation is used, but unlike fiberglass, denim does not end up in landfills, and since it’s free of irritants, it doesn’t require handlers to wear protective clothing. “Green” building and construction projects increasingly include recycled denim insulation. In this chapter we will learn how companies plan, manage, control, and schedule projects, including project management tools like CPM/PERT. Sources : The Levi Strauss & Company website at ; and, the Gap, Inc. website at I n other chapters we discuss the scheduling of repetitive operations and activities , such as work scheduling and job scheduling, as an important aspect of managing an operation. Operational schedules are established to keep the flow of products or services through the supply chain on time. However, not all operational activities are repetitive; some are unique, occurring only once within a specified time frame. Such unique, one­time activities are referred to as projects .
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A Gantt chart.
The Gantt chart is a graphical technique with a bar or the time line displayed for each activity
in the project. The horizontal bars are drawn against a time scale for each project...

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