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Centralized purchasing and decision making, as well as cost efficiencies, are characteristics of which form of

retail institution?

A. Independents
B. Chains
C. Retail cooperatives
D. Vertical marketing systems

A disadvantage of a leased department to the leased department operator is the:

A. restriction on goods/services carried.
B. high promotional expense.
C. poor cash flow due to centralized checkouts.
D. creation of a one-stop shopping environment.

Reset Selection

The use of prototype stores, standardized product lines, and cooperative advertising characterizes:
A. retail cooperatives.
B. business format franchising.
C. product/trademark franchising.
D. vertical marketing systems.

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