A 51 Year old man with a history of tuberculosis is found to have a unilateral pleural effusion. A pleural fluid specimen is obtained by thoracentesis and sent to laboratory for evaluation.
Blood Chemistry Results: Reference Interval
Total Protein-7.0 g/dL6.0-8.3 mg/dLLD activity-520 U/L275-645 U/LGlucose, fasting- 75 mg/dL< 111 mg/dL
Pleural Fluid Results:
Physical ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationChemical ExaminationColor: YellowLeucocytes: 1100 Cells/uLProtein: 4.2g/dLClarity: CloudyMononuclear Cells: 93%LD activity: 345 U/LClots Present: NoNeutrophils: 3%Glucose : 55mg/dL Gram Stain: No organisms seen Leukocytes Present
Calculate the fluid-to-serum total protein ratio.
Calculate the fluid-to-serum LD ratio.
Classify this pleural fluid specimen as a transudate or exudate and state two physiologic mechanisms that can cause this type of effusion.