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Chemistry 120A Problem Set 6 (due March 17, 2010) 1. Problems 6-43, 6-44 and 6-45 in McQuarrie and Simon. These problems lead you through the...

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I am looking for answers for question 2, 3, and 4.
Chemistry 120A Problem Set 6 (due March 17, 2010) 1. Problems 6-43, 6-44 and 6-45 in McQuarrie and Simon. These problems lead you through the textbook’s treatment of orbital magnetization in the hydrogen atom. You might find them helpful as background for Problem 2 below. 2. The orbital motion of the electron in a hydrogen atom produces a magnetic moment in the z -direction, μ z = - ( e/ 2 m e c ) L z , where - e and m e are, respectively, the charge and mass of an electron, c is the speed of light, and L z is the differential operator giving the z -component of the angular momentum. The energy of a magnetic moment in a static magnetic field, ~ B = B ˆ z , is E mag = - μ z B . Use first order perturbation theory for the energy and calculate the expectation values for the energy when the hydrogen atom is in the states ( n,‘,m )=(2,1,1), (2,1,0), and (2,1,-1). Compare your results with the magnetic energies discussed in lecture. 3. The instantaneous dipole moment of a hydrogen atom is = - e~ r , where ~ r is the position of the electron relative to that of the nucleus. The energy of a dipole in an electric field, ~ E , is E elec = - · ~ E . With this formula in mind, you will consider the Hamiltonian for a hydrogen atom perturbed by an electric field and use first order degenerate perturbation theory to estimate the energy levels of this atom. (a) With the unperturbed hydrogen stationary states | ψ n,‘,m i for ( n,‘,m ) = (1,0,0), (2,0,0), (2,1,-1), (2,1,0) and (2,1,1) determine the corresponding elements of the 5 × 5 Hamiltonian matrix for the hydrogen atom in an electric field. Take the z -axis to be the direction of the electric field. (Hint: Most of these matrix elements are zero, and not much work is required to see why. Do or consider doing your θ and φ integrations first! In this way, you can quickly identify the few integrals that actually need to be evaluated explicitly.) (b) Use first order degenerate perturbation theory to calculate the perturbed en- ergy eigenvalues for the five stationary states of lowest energy. (c) The splitting of energy levels by a static electric field is called the Stark effect. Draw an energy diagram showing the perturbed energies relative to the two lowest unperturbed energy levels. Indicate how the Stark effect energy level splittings depend upon the size of the electric field, E . 1
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(d) How would your estimates of these five perturbed energy levels change if you expanded your basis set to include n = 3 states? Explain. 4. A system in a stationary state at any point in time will remain in that station- ary state for all time unless the system is perturbed, i.e., unless the Hamiltonian changes. According to first-order time-dependent perturbation theory, the appli- cation of a perturbation causes transitions between stationary states i and j if h ψ i |H 1 | ψ j i 6 = 0, where H 1 is the perturbation Hamiltonian. Though we have not yet derived it, you should find this statement reasonable because you know, from Schr¨ odinger’s time-dependent equation, that the operation of the Hamiltonian on a state is a measure of that state’s rate of change. Accepting the statement as true, consider the following: The observed spectrum of hydrogen is a consequence of transitions between dif- ferent stationary states. The perturbation causing these transitions is the energy of interaction between the hydrogen atoms and the electric field associated with light. As noted in the previous problem, this interaction energy is - · ~ E , hence the perturbation referred to in the the previous paragraph is H 1 = - μ · E = e~ r · ~ E . As such, we expect transitions occur between stationary states i and j only when h ψ i | e~ r · ~ E | ψ j i 6 = 0 . By studying the integrals associated with this object, taking the z -axis to be the direction of the electric field, it is possible to show that transitions between hydrogen states ( n,‘,m ) and ( n 0 ,‘ 0 ,m 0 ) occur only when Δ = 0 - = ± 1 , and Δ m = m 0 - m = 0 , ± 1 , and there is no restriction on Δ n = n 0 - n . Transitions that obey these rules are said to be “allowed” transitions; these conditions for allowed transitions are called “selection rules.” (a) By considering the appropriate integrals, show that transitions between 2s and 1s states are not allowed; i.e., show that the matrix elements for these transitions are zero. (b) By considering the appropriate integrals, show that 3p to 1s and 2p to 1s transitions are allowed; i.e., show that the matrix elements for these transitions are not zero. 2
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This question was asked on Mar 16, 2010 and answered on Mar 16, 2010.

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