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1.) Which of the following explains how one of the postulates in John Dalton's atomic theory was later subjected

to change? Various scientists found that all atoms of a particular element are identical.

Some scientists found that atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.

Various scientists found that atoms consist of subatomic particles with varying mass and charge.

Some scientists found that bonds between atoms are broken, rearranged, or reformed during reactions.


2.) What term is used to describe the height of a wave?

Amplitude

Frequency

Period

Wavelength


3.) Rutherford created a planetary model for atoms after his experiments. Imagine if Rutherford's idea that electrons radiate energy while orbiting around a nucleus was true. Which other model or scientific idea would have been strengthened by this?

Bohr's model of the atom would have been strengthened because Bohr proposed that the energy of electrons is continuous.

Bohr's model of the atom would have been strengthened because Bohr proposed that electrons can have only certain energy values.

The idea that atoms are unstable would have been strengthened because the orbiting electron would release energy and circle into the nucleus.

The idea that atoms are unstable would be strengthened because the orbiting electron would absorb energy while moving and escape the pull from the nucleus.


4.) A chemist reported that carbon dioxide gas at −78 °C was kept in the laboratory. Which property of the gas did the chemist report?

Length

Mass

Temperature

Volume


5.) Two different atoms have nine protons each and the same mass. However, one is neutral while the other has a positive charge. Describe what each atomic structure could be, listing the possible number and location of all subatomic particles.


6.) At which of the following temperatures is the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance the least?

23.2 °C

35.2 °C

15.2 °C

31.4 °C


7.) Two changes are described below.


  1. A green banana turns yellow and ripens.
  2. A layer of rust forms on an iron nail.


Which statement is true about the two changes?


Both are chemical changes because new substances are formed.

Both are physical changes because only the physical state of the substances change.

A is a physical change due to a change of state, but B is a chemical change because new molecules are formed.

A is a chemical change due to a change of state, but B is a physical change because new molecules are formed.


8.) A piece of metal with a length of 2.83 cm was measured using four different devices. Which of the following measurements is the most accurate?

2.837 cm

2.829 cm

2.812 cm

2.805 cm


9.) A student collected the data shown in the table below during an experiment.


Liquid CharacteristicsLiquidCharacteristicsBoiling PointFreezing PointColorExpansion per Degree Change in TemperatureMercury357 °C−39 °Cshiny silver grayrelatively lowerAlcohol78 °C−115 °Ccolorlessrelatively higher


Based on the data, which of the following conclusions can be made about the use of mercury and alcohol thermometers?


A mercury thermometer can measure the freezing point of a liquid that freezes at −80 °C.

An alcohol thermometer can measure the boiling point of a liquid that boils at 80 °C.

A mercury thermometer is better to measure very small changes in temperature.

An alcohol thermometer is better to measure the boiling points of colorless liquids.


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11.)

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13.) Which of the following has potential energy but no kinetic energy?

Longitudinal sound waves

An arrow shot from a bow

A compressed spring

A vibrating atom


14.) Which of the following subject areas contains questions that can be answered by science?

Astrology

Nature

Philosophy

Spirituality


15.) An electron is present at an energy level with an energy of 5.44 x 10−19 J. After a second, the electron is present at an energy level with energy, 2.4 x 10−19 J. What most likely happened during the transition?

A photon of energy 7.84 x 10−19 J was released.

A photon of energy 3.04 x 10−19 J was released.

A photon of energy 7.84 x 10−19 J was absorbed.

A photon of energy 3.04 x 10−19 J was absorbed.


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17.) Which statement is true about the elements present in a compound?

They maintain their chemical properties.

They are composed of many mixtures.

They can be separated by physical methods.

They can only be separated by chemical methods.


18.) Which of these is a characteristic of science?

Its results cannot be generalized.

Its findings are usually kept a secret.

It follows a clearly laid out methodology.

It is based on beliefs and preferences of scientists.


19.) Which of the following statements is true about energy quantization at the atomic level? (5 points)

Electrons in the outermost orbits are the most stable.

Electrons in all the orbits around the nucleus have the same amount of energy.

Electrons in the orbit closest to the nucleus have the least amount of energy.

Electrons absorb or release the same amount of energy independent of the energy levels.


20.) It was observed that the atoms of a substance were arranged in a closely packed structure. What is most likely the state of matter of the substance?

Gas

Liquid

Plasma

Solid


21.) Scientists plan to place detection devices outside Earth's atmosphere to detect radiations from a star. Which of the following best explains the type of detection device that the scientists would use?

A radar, because high frequency microwaves are limited to the region outside Earth's atmosphere

Special cameras, because high frequency UV rays are emitted by objects at very high temperatures

Special cameras, because high energy UV rays are emitted by objects having very high mass

A radar, because high energy microwaves are produced from very hot objects

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A student collected the data shown in the table below during an experiment.
Liquid Characteristics
Liquid
Characteristics
Boiling PointFreezing PointColor
Expansion per Degree Change in Temperature
Mercury 357 .C
-39 .C
shiny silver gray relatively lower
Alcohol 78 .C
-115 .C
colorless
relatively higher
Based on the data, which of the following conclusions can be made about the use of mercury and alcohol thermometers? (5 points)
O A mercury thermometer can measure the freezing point of a liquid that freezes at -80 .C.
O An alcohol thermometer can measure the boiling point of a liquid that boils at 80 .C.
A mercury thermometer is better to measure very small changes in temperature.
O An alcohol thermometer is better to measure the boiling points of colorless liquids.

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A student described two properties of a substance as shown. Properties of Substance PropertyDescription
C A known mass of the substance gives off heat when it is burned.
D A substance can be stretched out to become a long wire. Which of the following is true about the two properties described in the table? (5 points) A Both are physical properties.
A Both are chemical properties
A C is a chemical property and D is a physical property. A C is a physical property and D is a chemical property.

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The diagram shows the different models of the atom that eventually led to the modern atomic theory. ”0 Which model is based on Bohr's quantum model? (5 points) 0 Model A
0 Model B
0 Model C 0 Model D

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Sue used the following method to convert 5 g/gal to oz/m3. 5g 1gal 1m3 X—x— = 45.59 oz/m3
1 gal 000373541 m3 28.3495 9 (1 gal = 0.00378541 m3 and 1 oz = 28.3495 9) what is the error in Sue's conversion method? (5 points) A 0.00378541 m3 should be written as 0.00378541 gal.
A 28.3495 9 should be written as 28.3495 02.
A 5 9 should be written as 5 oz. A 1 m3 should be written as 1 oz.

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