Assume that due to dwindling supplies of crude oil and

natural gas, the US embarks on a plan to implement the

"hydrogen economy" for which hydrogen will be generated

by electrolysis of water. The source of electricity is from

photovoltaic (PV) conversion of sunlight in the southwestern

US. (a) Assume that a flat plate PV system is used, with a solar

conversion efficiency of 25 percent and a hydrogen

production efficiency of 60 percent. Assume the average annual

insolation in the southwest is 270 watts per square meter.

Calculate the annual electrical energy produced in kJ/sq. meter. Calculate

the weight of hydrogen (kg/sq. meter) produced per year.

(b) The US consumed 48 EJ of petroleum in 2000. How many

square meters of PV collectors would be needed to supply the equivalent

amount of energy in hydrogen?

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