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Description This is a very comprehensive web site called "Blood, Sweat, and Buffers: pH Regulation During Exercise", from Washington...

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Description This is a very comprehensive web site called "Blood, Sweat, and Buffers: pH Regulation During Exercise", from Washington University. It contains general discussions of acid/base reactions, pH, buffers, and Le Châtelier's Principle. It then describes how these chemical principles are applied to the maintenance of blood pH, including detailed information about the specific buffering system used by the body and the physiological processes at work during exercise. 2. Note to Instructors: Carbon Dioxide Experiment Description For those instructors who would like to integrate this writing assignment with a laboratory experiment, such an experiment has been developed at the Chemistry Department of the City College of San Francisco. To request a copy of the student handout and experimental procedures, E-mail Dr. Tim M. Su at: [email protected] Guidance for Studying Source Materials Instructions for the Exploration Intracellular and extracellular fluids of living organisms contain conjugate acid-base pairs that act as buffers at the normal pH of these fluids. The major intracellular buffer is the conjugate acid-base pair H 2 PO 4 -1 /HPO 4 -2 (pKa = 7.2). The major extracellular buffer in the blood and interstitial fluid of vertebrates is the bicarbonate buffer system, H 2 CO 3 / HCO 3 -1 (pKa = 6.1). Follow the link under "Resources" called Buffers Tutorial. The web site describes how the bicarbonate buffer system works, and explains how the body uses the buffering system to respond to the stresses placed upon it during exercise. Read through all the information presented at the site and answer the questions you find there. When you have finished exploring the web site and are able to answer all of the "Guiding Questions" below, return to this site and continue with the writing assignment. You will write a paragraph on how the bicarbonate buffering system maintains a normal pH level in the blood during exercise. Hyperlink Resources Buffers Tutorial - Web site developed at Washington University in St. Louis s/Buffer/Buffer.html HTML Tutor - This page explains how to use simple HTML commands to format your essay. It includes such formatting items as subscripts, superscripts, and line returns. Guidance for Writing Your Text In studying the resources and writing your text consider the issues raised by the following questions: 1. What is homeostasis? 2. What is acidosis? 3. What is a buffer and how does it work? 4. What equilibrium reactions are involved in the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system? 5. What are the metabolic and physiological processes that increase the concentration of protons and carbon dioxide in the blood during exercise?
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6. How does the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system respond to the stress? 7. What other pathways does the body use to remove excess protons, carbon dioxide or bicarbonate from the blood, and what effect do each of these pathways have on the pH of the blood? Writing Prompt Write a paragraph of the required length on how the bicarbonate system maintains homeostasis in the blood system. In your paragraph be sure to address the issues in the Guiding Questions. Remember that you are writing a paragraph, not just answering a list of questions, so you should include a topic sentence and a summary statement. Note: Formatting from word processors is NOT preserved when you copy and paste into the text box below. Refer to the HTML Tutor in the "Source Material Resources" section to learn how to format your essay with subscripts and superscripts, as well as line returns and paragraphs. ALWAYS check your formatting by using the "Preview Text" button below. This will show you exactly how your text will appear to reviewers. Required Text Entry Length: 175 to 275 words
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