2. Give Arrhenius’s and Brønsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases.
3. Identify each of the following species as a Brønsted-Lowry acid, base, or both: (a) HI, (b) CH3COO–, (c) H2PO4–, (d) HSO4–.
4. Balance the following equations and write the corresponding ionic and net ionic equations:
a. HBr + NH3 →
b. Ba(OH)2 + H3PO4 →
c. HClO4 + Mg(OH)2 →
5. Identify the acid-base conjugate pairs in each of the following reactions:
a. CH3COO– + HCN ⇌ CH3COOH + CN–
b. HCO3– + HCO3– ⇌ H2CO3 + CO3–2
c. H2PO4– + NH3 ⇌ HPO42– + NH4+
d. HClO + CH3NH2 ⇌ CH3NH3+ + ClO–
e. CO32– + H2O ⇌ HCO3– + OH–
6. Calculate the pH of each of the following solutions:
a. 0.0010 M HCl
b. 0.76 M KOH
7. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in mol/L for solutions with the following pH values:
8. How much NaOH (in grams) is needed to prepare 546 mL of solution with a pH of 10.00?
9. Classify each of the following species as a weak or strong acid:
10. Which of the following statements is/are true for a 0.10 M solution of a weak acid HA?
a. The pH is 1.00.
b. [H+] ≫ [A–]
c. [H+] = [A–]
d. The pH is less than 1.
11. The Ka for benzoic acid is 6.5 × 10–5. Calculate the pH of a 0.10 M benzoic acid solution.
12. The pH of an acid solution is 6.20. Calculate the Ka for the acid. The initial acid concentration is 0.010 M.
13. Calculate the percent ionization of benzoic acid at the following concentrations:
a. 0.20 M
b. 0.00020 M
14. A 0.040 M solution of a monoprotic acid is 14 percent ionized. Calculate the ionization constant of the acid. (4 points)
15. Calculate the pH for each of the following solutions:
a. 0.10 M NH3
b. 0.050 M C5H5N (pyridine)
16. What is the original molarity of a solution of ammonia whose pH is 11.22?
17. Predict the acid strengths of the following compounds: H2O, H2S, and H2Se.
18. What is a salt? Define salt hydrolysis. Categorize salts according to how they affect the pH of a solution.
19. Calculate the pH of a 0.36 M CH3COONa solution.
20. Calculate the pH of a 0.42 M NH4Cl solution.
21. How many grams of NaCN would you need to dissolve in enough water to make exactly 250 mL of solution with a pH = 10.00?
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