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Name: Justin Roth College ID: 0360782 Thomas Edison State College General Chemistry I (CHE-111) Section no.: 10 Semester and year: January 2016
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Attached is the last Written assignment number 10.  Thank youJustin

Name: Justin Roth College ID: 0360782 Thomas Edison State College General Chemistry I (CHE-111) Section no.: 10 Semester and year: January 2016 Written Assignment 10: Nuclear Reactions Answer all assigned questions and problems, and show all work. 1. How do nuclear reactions differ from ordinary chemical reactions? (3 points) In a nuclear reaction the elements change into new elements while in a chemical reaction, the elements are intact. (Reference: Chang 19.1) 2. What is the difference between radioactive decay and nuclear transmutation? (3 points) Radioactive decay is the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation and Nuclear Transmutation is the change undergone by a nucleus as a result of bombardment by neutrons or other particles. (Reference: Chang 19.35) 3. The table below is a summary of different modes of nuclear decay. Fill in the changes in atomic number ( Z ), number of neutrons ( N ), and mass number ( A ) in each case. Use “+” sign for increase, “–“ sign for decrease, and “0” for no change. Provide the symbol for each elementary particle involved in the decay process. (12 points) Decay Mode Particle Symbol Change in: Change in: Change in: Z N A Alpha decay a - + + Beta decay B + + +- Positron decay e+ + - + 1
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Electron capture B + - 0 (Reference: Chang 19.6) 4. Complete the following nuclear equations, and identify X in each case. (15 points) a. 222 Rn 218 Po + X= 4 He2+ Alpha decay b. 231Th 231Pa + X=0H1- Beta decay c. 226 Ra 4 He + X=222Rn86 Electro Capture d. 14 C 14 N + X=OH1- Beta decay e. 20 F –1 β + X=10^20Ne 5. Which of the reactions in exercise 4 show alpha decay? Which show beta decay? (5 points) a and e showed alpha and b and d had beta. 6. Define half-life. Write the equation relating the half-life of a first-order reaction to the rate constant. (3 points) Half-life is the time required for the concentration of a reactant to decrease to half its initial concentration. (Reference: Chang 13.22) 7. If uranium-238 has a half-life of 45 billion years, how many years would it take for a 10-gram sample of U-238 to decrease to 2.5 grams? (3 points) 0.693 / 45 × 109 years = 1.54 × 10-11 years-1 ln(2.5/10) = -(1.54 × 10-11 years-1)t t = 90 billion years 2
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