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Introductory Chemistry Lab 13: Titration Lab 13: Titration Concepts to explore: Understand the process of titration. Use titration with a standard...

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Introductory Chemistry Lab 13: Titra±on
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Lab 13: Titra±on Concepts to explore: Understand the process of TtraTon. Use TtraTon with a standard Na 2 CO 3 soluTon to determine whether Swee±arts® or SmarTes® candies requires more standard base per gram of candy to reach the endpoint. Use TtraTon with a standard Na 2 CO 3 soluTon to determine whether Swee±arts® or SmarTes® candies has more moles of acid per gram of candy. Introduc±on When do you use something known to fnd something unknown? Every day we face things that are unknown to us, and every day we use what we do know to determine the unknown. When you wake up in the morning and see that it is cloudy, you speculate that you might need an umbrella because there is a possibility of rain. You do not know that it is going to rain, but you do know that it is cloudy and cloudy days oFen lead to rainy days. You use what you know to deter- mine what you do not know. In the same way, in an acid/ base TtraTon, we determine the unknown concentraTon of an acid or base with a known concentraTon of the opposite acid or base. You will use candy in this lab exercise—not to eat, but to determine its acid concentraTon. In general, to ²nd an un- known one must know how it relates to a known. Remem- ber when acids and bases are combined, a neutralizaTon Figure 1: Swimming pool test kits are like a small ±tra±on ex- periment. Kits like this frst use a phenol red indicator to meas- ure the acidity o² the pool water. Next, a ±trant is gradually added by drop; the number o² drops tells you how much acid or base mixture needs to be added to the pool water to achieve the ideal pH. reacTon occurs. ±o determine the concentraTon of acid in an acidic candy soluTon, a base of known concentraTon, called a standard solu±on , is added in small quanTTes unTl complete neutralizaTon occurs. ±his procedure is called an acid-base ±tra±on . When neutralizaTon occurs, the equivalence point of the TtraTon has been reached. When the standard soluTon is reacted with an acid or base, how do you know when the neutralizaTon reacTon is com- plete? An addiTonal substance is required for a TtraTon - an acid-base indicator. An indicator provides a sudden color change when a certain pH is reached. ±he pH at which the indicator changes color, known as the end point of the TtraTon, depends on the chemical nature of the indicator. An indicator for a TtraTon should be chosen that changes color at a pH near the equivalence point. At the equivalence point, one can assume that the total number of H + ions donated by the acid equals the total number of H + ions accepted by the base. But even more informaTon can be learned from the TtraTons. You can even calculate how many moles of acid there is per gram of candy if the type of acid in the candy is known. ±o do this, the following equaTon is used: a x M b x V b In the above equaTon: moles acid = b 135
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Introductory Chemistry Lab 13:
Titration Lab 13: Titration
Concepts to explore: Understand the process of titration. Use titration with a standard Na2CO3 solution to determine whether
SweeTarts®...

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