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# CEE 341 Homework Assignment #4 [30] 1. Compare the Chevy Volt plug-in hybrid vehicle with the similar sized Chevrolet Camaro (cost \$23,000) that...

Consider a 1-m3 exposure chamber used to study toxicity of vehicle exhaust. An idling Ford F150 truck engine is the source of the exhaust for the chamber as shown in the sketch. The engine exhaust flow (F1) is diluted by a dry, clean air flow (F2) to reduce humidity. F2 is adjusted to be 20% of the exhaust flow. Ford F150 truck engine has a displacement volume of 3.7 L and idles at 700 rpm. The concentration of CO in the exhaust is 0.1% by volume. The diluted exhaust is pulled through the chamber at a flow of 100 L-min. Assume an air pressure of 1 atmosphere and temperature of 25 °C for all calculations.
[5] a. What is the engine exhaust flow and dilution flow? (Hint: make use of the engine displacement volume, rpm, and the fact that it is a 4-stroke engine).
[10] b. What is the maximum concentration of CO in the exposure chamber (mg/m3).
[20] c. Plot [CO] versus time assuming the chamber starts out with CO=0 ppmv and the dilution air contains no CO. How long does it take to reach the maximum value value?
[10] d. Calculate the resulting %COHb after 2 hours exposure at Cmax? What is the persons (rat’s) fate?

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CEE 341 Homework Assignment #4 [30] 1 . Compare the Chevy Volt plug-in hybrid vehicle with the similar sized Chevrolet Camaro (cost \$23,000) that burns gasoline and gets 18 mpg in the city. The 2012 Chevy Volt costs \$40,000 and will get 2.9 miles/kwh on a battery charge (see http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/phevsbs.shtml). It will have a range of 40 miles before the lithium ion batteries require recharging. Battery life is expected to be 10 years. [25] a) Use the Energy Information Agency website to find data on the US annual average cost of electricity and gasoline. Calculate and present as a table the annual cost of fueling your vehicle with electricity compared to gasoline for the period 2000 to 2011. Assume your drive 40 miles a day. Plot the annual cost difference (gasoline – electric) in Excel and hand in your plot. Which fuel price is rising more rapidly? [5] b) Calculate the payback period (how long will it take to recover the \$17,000 price difference given the annual fuel saving cost). [25] 2. Calculate the carbon intensity (gC/MJ) of the following fuels. Which liquid fuel has the lowest carbon intensity? Why is hydrogen considered a good fuel choice for future vehicles? Liquid fuels Representative Formula Energy Density (MJ/L) Fluid Density (g/mL) gasoline C 7 H 16 32.2 0.727 diesel C 15 H 32 36.4 0.870 ethanol CH 3 CH 2 OH 21.1 0.789 propane (liquid) C 3 H 8 22.8 0.493 Liquefied natural gas CH 4 20.8 0.428 Gaseous Fuels (273 K, 1 atm) Formula kJ/L g / L Natural gas CH 4 36.6 0.777 hydrogen H 2 10.83 0.0901 [45] 3. Consider a 1-m 3 exposure chamber used to study toxicity of vehicle exhaust. An idling Ford F150 truck engine is the source of the exhaust for the chamber as shown in the sketch. The engine exhaust flow (F1) is diluted by a dry, clean air flow (F2) to reduce humidity. F2 is adjusted to be 20% of the exhaust flow. Ford F150 truck engine has a displacement volume of 3.7 L and idles at 700 rpm. The concentration of CO in the exhaust is 0.1% by volume. The diluted exhaust is pulled through the chamber at a flow of 100 L-min. Assume an air pressure of 1 atmosphere and temperature of 25 °C for all calculations. [5] a. What is the engine exhaust flow and dilution flow? ( Hint: make use of the engine displacement volume, rpm, and the fact that it is a 4-stroke engine). [10] b . What is the maximum concentration of CO in the exposure chamber (mg/m 3 ). [20] c . Plot [CO] versus time assuming the chamber starts out with CO=0 ppmv and the dilution air contains no CO. How long does it take to reach the maximum value value? [10] d . Calculate the resulting %COHb after 2 hours exposure at C max ? What is the persons (rat’s) fate?

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