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based on the common types of plagairism. Identify the types of plagairism found in the given article below:


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The experimental theorist perform series of experiment with animals because it was difficult to subject man to such excruciating condition as to remove part of the brain to observe changes in motivation (Petri, 2014). Nevertheless, they conclude that some parts of the brain structure which is referred to as the mind controls some basic motive such as desire for food, need for water, sex, anger, and fear (Petri, 2014). This submission was criticized because human beings are more rational than animal. Moreover, human beings are seen to have will power to decide on their course of
action. Hence, empirically based model to explain the process was desirable. This brought about the shift from the realm of philosophy to scientifically based psychology (Steers et al. 2004; Olomolaiye, 1988; Graham and Weiner, 1996). The behaviorist attempts to confirm propositions about psychological events in terms of behavioral criteria. This begun the advent of traditional theory of motivation. Some of the proponents of this theory are James, freud and McDongall (Steers et al., 2004; Graham and Weiner, 1996; Smelser & Bates, 2001). These theories were based on instinct, which is natural tendency to initiate behavior in a way that is desired, hence the acronym traditional theory. This is fondly called learned theory (Smelser & Bates, 2001). Hull drive theory is hinged on the belief that behavior emanates from the mind,
propel by need; such as hunger, thirst, sex and need to avoid pain (Jean et al., 2006; Petri, 2014). Skinner (1960) in Smelser & Baltes (2001) in an attempt to formulate his theory adapted Newton law of motion, mathematically represented as F=ma. Where F
stands for force, m stands for mass and a stands for acceleration. This was transposed to B = DH in an attempt to have a construct to explain how habit is formed. B stands for behavior, D for drive, and H for habit. McDongall identified eighteen needs of man which he refers to as instinct namely submission, self affirmation, curiosity, rejection of a particular substance, hunger, flee, aggressiveness, sex, maternal/paternal
instinct, socialness, construction, acquisition, appeal or crying out, laughter, comfort, rest or sleep and migration as against two listed by Hull Sigmund which are life and death instinct. Furthermore, Skinner came out with a modified version of
instinct called behaviorism (Smelser & Bates, 2001). He proposes that man is not just influenced by his state of mind but also by his
environment. Human reacts sharply to the happenings in his environment. He concludes that any behavior that is rewarded is repeated while the likelihood of repeating unrewarded behavior is remote (Petri, 2014). Theory of motivation continued to evolve with the introduction of reinforcement. This is in an effort to replace instinct theory with a model based theory (Steers et al., 2004). Major contributors to this theory are Thorndike, Woodworth and Hull. The summary of this theory is that if workers receive positive reinforcement for an action, such as praise,
such behavior will be repeated. However, if negative reinforcement is received such behavior will be dropped. This they argue can be influenced by culture. In some societies, there are some habits that are considered normal while in others it is an abomination. The critics of traditional theory argue that their submission cannot be empirically proved. This led to scientific movement and the proposition of scientifically based model of motivation which begun modern theory of motivation. Nevertheless, the traditional theory of motivation was able to prove the importance of reward to productivity improvement, and that behavior is a product of need or desire.

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