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Module 4 - Case INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING UBUNTU What is Linux? Ubuntu is built on the foundaTon of Linux, which is a member of the Unix family. Unix is one of the oldest types of operaTng systems, and together with Linux has provided reliability and security for professional applicaTons for almost half a century. Many servers around the world that store data for popular websites (such as You±ube and Google) run some variant of Linux or Unix. ±he popular Android system for smartphones is a Linux variant; modern in-car computers usually run on Linux. Even Apple OS x is based on Unix. ±he Linux kernel is best described as the core—almost the brain—of the Ubuntu operaTng system. ±he Linux kernel is the controller of the operaTng system; it is responsible for allocaTng memory and processor Tme. It can also be thought of as the program which manages any and all applicaTons on the computer itself. While modern graphical desktop environments have generally replaced early command line interfaces, the command line can sTll be a quick and eFcient way of performing many tasks. Linux was designed from the ground up with security and hardware compaTbility in mind, and is currently one of the most popular Unix-based operaTng systems. One of the bene²ts of Linux is that it is incredibly ³exible and can be con²gured to run on almost any device—from the smallest micro- computers and cellphones to the largest super-computers. Unix was enTrely command line-based unTl graphical user interfaces (GUIs) emerged in 1973 (in comparison, Apple came out with Mac os ten years later, and Microso´ released Windows 1.0 in 1985). ±he early GUIs were diFcult to con²gure, clunky, and generally only used by seasoned computer programmers. In the past decade, however, graphical user interfaces have grown in usability, reliability, and appearance. Ubuntu is one of many diµerent Linux distribuTons . Installa±on 1. Ge²ng Ubuntu Before you can get started with Ubuntu, you will need to obtain a copy of the Ubuntu installaTon image for DVD or USB. Some opTons for doing this are outlined below. 2. Minimum system requirements If you are unsure whether it will work on your computer, the Live DVD is a great way to test things out ²rst. Below is a list of hardware speci²caTons that your computer should meet as a minimum requirement. 1 GHz x86 processor (PenTum 4 or be¶er) 1 gb of system memory (RAM) 5 gb of disk space (at least 15 gb is recommended) Video support capable of 1024×768 resoluTon Audio support
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3. Downloading Ubuntu The easiest and most common method for ge±ng Ubuntu is to download the Ubuntu DVD image directly from htp://www.ubunTu.com/download . Choose how you will install Ubuntu: Download and install Try it from a DVD or USB s²ck 3.1.Download and Install/Try it from a DVD or USB s±ck For the Download and insTall , or ±ry iT from a DVD or USB s²ck op²ons, select whether you require the 32-bit or 64-bit version (32-bit is recommended for most users), then click “Start download.” 32-bit vs. 64-bit Ubuntu and its deriva²ves are available in two versions: 32-bit and 64-bit. This di³erence refers to the way computers process informa²on. Computers capable of running 64-bit so´ware are able to process more informa²on than computers running 32-bit so´ware; however, 64-bit systems require more memory in order to do this. Nevertheless, these computers gain performance enhancements by running 64-bit so´ware. If your computer has a 64-bit processor, install the 64-bit version. If your computer is older, a netbook, or you do not know the type of processor in the computer, install the 32-bit version. If your computer has a 64-bit processor, select the “64-bit” op²on before you click “Start download.” 4. Burning the DVD image Once your download is complete, you will be le´ with a µle called ubunTu-14.04-deskTop-i386.iso or similar ( i386 here in the µlename refers to the 32-bit version. If you downloaded the 64-bit version, the µlename contains amd64 instead). This µle is a DVD image—a snapshot of the contents of a DVD—which you will need to burn to a DVD. 5. Crea±ng a bootable USB drive If your PC is able to boot from a USB s²ck, you may prefer to use a USB memory s²ck instead of burning a DVD. Scroll down to “Burn your DVD or create a USB drive,” select DVD or USB s²ck , choose the OS you are using to create the USB drive, and then click Show me how . If you select the “USB S²ck” op²on, your installa²on will be running from the USB memory s²ck. In this case, references to Live DVD, will refer to the USB memory s²ck. 6. Trying out Ubuntu The Ubuntu DVD and USB s²ck func²on not only as installa²on media, but also allow you to test Ubuntu without making any permanent changes to your computer by running the en²re opera²ng system from the DVD or USB s²ck.
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