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1. Define a model of distributed systems where messages can be passed both synchronously and asynchronously. 

2. Define the causal order for the transitions of a system with synchronous communication. Define clocks for such systems, and give a distributed algorithm for computing a clock.


3. Why is it difficult to keep a synchronized system of physical clocks in distributed systems?

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1. Define a model of distributed systems where messages can be passed both synchronously and asynchronously. 2. Define the causal order for the
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