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# ........ Machine Data A computer is a machine (some built with current, oil, even steam!) that stores only bits of information ('1's and '0's), and

Hi, can you please help me do this worksheet? Its pretty straight forward. Please use complete sentences and only the numbered questions are needed. Thanks

........ Machine Data A computer is a machine (some built with current, oil, even steam!) that stores only
bits of information ('1’s and '0’s), and this is the language of the machine. We group
together bits of data (to form Bytes, Kilo-Bytes, Giga-Bytes, etc.) to store more
complex data. As an example, consider a light switch. It does a good job of turning
on and off lights, but what if we wanted three settings: on, dim, and off? For this, we
would need a special type of switch that could represent these three options? For
hardware reasons (cost, primarily), we can store a bit efficiently and cheaply. To
represent the three states of the lights above (on, dim, off), we would just chain two
bits together and assign 00 to be “off”, 01 to be “dim” and 10 to be “on&quot;. Notice that
we have one left over, unused binary combination here: 11. If we want to store
anything more than the number 2, or anything more than an on/off or true/false
value, we use this combination technique to combine simple data items into more
complex data items. Google and define the term Machine Language. 2. If a true/false value can be represented with one bit, and a three-setting
lighting ﬁxture can be represented with just two bits, so how many positive
integers can be represented with just 3 bits? a. Hint: Binary is base 2, so consider 2 raised to the power of 3 3. If our alphabet contains 26 distinct letters, how many bits do we need to
represent a single letter? b. Hint: The inverse of the power function is the logarithm, so consider
X, where X = logz 26. Rewrite this as 2’1 = 26, and determine X.
Further hint: Since you can’t have fractions of a bit, you need to use
the ceiling function to raise your X value to a whole number. CS SPOILER ALERT! [STORED PROGRAM CONCEPT] You store numbers (data) in binary. You also store software (methods) in binary.
This is the stored program concept, and it means we can use binary RAM to store
results from a football tournament (data), or we could use the same binary RAM to
store a program that calculates the winner of the football tournament, using the
same tool: a bit (a.k.a RAM, FIipFl'op, Latch, SR Latch, Memory). It means that if
you look at any arbitrary chunk of RAM, it could ho ld data or a pro gram, and you
wouldn’t necessarily know which just by looking at the bits.

Now Question Everything
4. What is data? Google it and then deﬁne it using your own words. a. How did Google become such a powerful tech company? We know
they facilitate searching [see Email 8; Search lab), but what are we
searching through? 5. What types of data are there? Answer this by deﬁning the following terms: to???“ b. Define the term data type. c. Define the term primitive data type. i. What does it mean to be an integral ( or integer) data type? 1. What do we call this in Alice? 2. What do we call this in lava? 3. Data Size: How many bits ofinformation do we use to
store a number in Java [and Alice)? ii. What does it mean to be a Boolean type of data? 1. Data Size: How many bits ofinformation ['1’s and '0's)
do we need to store a Boolean? iii. What does it mean to be a character or letter? 1. Data Size: How many hits ofinformation are required to
store the English alphabet? d. Define the term composite data type [a.k.a. aggregation, compound
data type). i. What does it mean to be a String data type?
1. Can this more complex data type be built from the more
simple or primitive data types above?
a. If so, how?
ii. What does it mean to be an Object in Alice, like the camera or
ground? 1. How do Objects define their state in Alice? [Examples
of state include how big or how small something is,
whether it’s visible or not, and where the object is
located in the x,y,z dimensions.) a. List 4 more properties [a.k.a. data) that an object
might have in Alice. e. What type of data is a Dummy Camera? Since it will contain things
like an x,y,z coordinate, can this be represented as a single number or
is this a compound data item? How do you deﬁne a global data item in Alice as a World variable? List the
steps here. What is the difference between a boolean and a number in Alice? What is the difference between a number and an object in Alice? What is a list? Can you make a list in Alice?

Practical Applications in Alice Making Numbers (Primitive Data items) Pick any previous simulation we’ve worked on in class and open it. We’re going to
add a score feature to this project using an integral data type in Alice called a
number. In the top left, click on the World object. In the bottom left, click on the
&quot;properties&quot; tab and add a new variable called &quot;score” that is a number. Now, in
your simulation, drag the world variable [a global) over to the code window when
something interesting happens and increment the variable. Use &quot;say&quot; or create 3D
text to see the variable [as a String? a Number) in Alice, and Making Dummy Cameras (Compound Data items or Objects) Open any project in Alice and click on the “Add Object&quot; button. Next to the &quot;quad
View” and copy/zoom controls, notice the “more controls” option - click it. With the
additional controls, click on “drop dummy camera&quot;, and notice that in the top left
object microscope, a folder (a.k.a. directory) has appeared that you can click on, and
underneath that folder is the collection of dummy objects in your scene. Add
another dummy object so you have two dummy cameras, and in this section, you’re
going to practice moving the primary camera between dummy points - this provides
the effect of a moving perspective. Google “Trinity Matrix Kick” to see how we might
use this in ﬁlm, or check out any cut scene in a game that has the camera pan around
a view — this is what we want to accomplish in our next animation. So, move the
dummy cameras far away from each other, and point them at something interesting
in your scene. Now, how would we position our primary camera at a dummy
camera? I wonder what chapter 2 has to say about this? Complete this section by
building an animation that moves the camera from its initial position to the first
dummy camera and then from the first dummy camera to the second dummy
camera - can you recreate the Trinity Matrix Kick?

Introduction Read the following lab in its entirety before answering any of the questions. When
you re-read the lab, answer the questions and define [using Google, in your own
words) any word that is in bold below. Finally, turn in the answers to this lab via
the website. Getting Warmed Up With Alice World Data ( Global Data) Click on the world in the top left object microscope in Alice. In the tab pane to the
bottom left, notice the tab titles. While Methods and Functions are almost the same
thing in Alice, the first tab entitled “Properties&quot; is fundamentally different. Click on
the Properties tab and notice the button “create new variable” - using this button,
create 4-8 different variables [data items), each of a different type. Think how
could you might augment the simulations we’ve built this quarter so that they can
use data - what could you do? Adding a score option to every game is an obviously
good idea, and you can extend this idea even further by adding another data item
that tracks the highest score ever seen for your game. 1. List 2 other ways you could use data to improve on a project we have already built in Alice Naming Data An ancient Chinese proverb states that the beginning of all wisdom is to call a thing
by its right name. So, google SelﬁDocumenting Variable Names, because all of our
data items and method names will follow this technique of informative naming. Give your variables good names such as “playerlPaddle” or &quot;highScore&quot; over generic
names like &quot;a&quot;,”b”, and &quot;foo”. Google the term Camel Case and declare all variable
and methods using this type of capitalization scheme. Do you know what Context
Sensitive means? It first appeared in the game Conkers Bad Fur Day, and the
technique relates to coding: I should be able to determine what a variable does
based on the context it’s in, including the name chosen for the variable.

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