Question

# 1. A generalization of the Caesar cipher, known as the affine Caesar cipher, has the following form: For

each plaintext letter ** p**, the corresponding ciphertext letter

**is computed as:**

*c*

** c = **(

**) mod**

*ap*+*b***26**for some integer values

**and**

*a***.**

*b*

As mentioned in lecture, a basic requirement of an encryption algorithm is that it be *one to one*; that is, no two different values of ** p** may map to the same ciphertext value

**(otherwise, decryption is impossible.**

*c*

a) Is the affine Caesar cipher one-to-one for all values of ** b**? Explain why or why not.

b) For which values of ** a** is the affine Caesar cipher

**one-to-one? Explain why this is the case.**

*not*

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