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1. (i) Distinguish between IaaS and PaaS types of Cloud Services, providing examples of each type. (8 marks) (ii)

Discuss either High Availability or Fault Tolerance using examples of architectures, such as Multicomputer Cluster or Grids or Cloud Platforms to show how either can be achieved. (12 marks) (Total: 20 marks)

2. (i) List 5 key challenges in cloud computing. (5 marks) (ii) Discuss the key features of technical/architectural approaches that have contributed to addressing these challenges, giving examples of each approach. (15 marks) (Total: 20 marks)

3. (i) Describe the reasons for the emergence of multi-core GPU's and their role in large scale computers, giving one architecture that uses them. (5 marks) (ii) Describe Brewer's CAP Theorem and use it to classify one system. (7 marks) (iii) Describe the benefits and drawbacks of using Virtualisation on a single machine and also in a cluster environment. (8 marks) (Total: 20 marks)

4. (i) For a given program, 98% of its code is parallelisable. If this program is executed on a multiprocessor system and runs at the same speed on all processors without additional overheads, what is the parallel speedup on: (10 marks) 10; 100; 10,000; 1,000,000 cores. (ii) If the serial part is reduced to 0.2%, what is the parallel

speedup on 10,000 cores. (5 marks) (iii) Discuss why the speedup exhibits the behaviour shown. (5 marks) (Total: 20 marks)

5. (i) Describe the roles of the key components in HDFS and describe how it achieves HA, scalability and fault tolerance. (10 marks) (ii) Describe the MapReduce programming model and how it achieves scalability. (10 marks) (Total : 20marks)

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