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Network Security-Operation Security in a corporation – word count 200
How would you apply Operation Security (OPSEC) principles (5 step process) to the protecting the IT infrastructure of a large corporation? Is it relevant in an unclassified environment?
CS6803 Sec Engr Chap1-24 vs1  by Ross Anderson.pdf

Preface
Fo r g en eratio n s, p eop le h ave d efin ed an d p rotected th eir p rop erty an d th eir p riv acy
u sin g lo ck s, fen ces, sign atu res, seals, acco u n t b o ok s, and meters. Th ese h ave b een su p p o rted b y a h o st o f so cial co nstru cts rang in g fro m in tern atio n al treaties th ro u gh n ation al laws to man n ers an d cu stoms.
Th is is ch an g ing , an d q u ick ly . Mo st reco rd s are n o w electro n ic, from b ank accou n ts
to reg isters o f real p rop erty ; an d tran sactio n s are in creasing ly electro n ic, as sh op p in g
mo ves to th e In tern et. Ju st as imp o rtan t, b u t less o b vio u s, are the many ev ery d ay sy stems th at h av e b een q u ietly au to mated . B u rg lar alarms n o lo n g er wake u p th e n eig h b o rh o o d , b u t send silen t messag es to th e p olice; stud en ts n o lo n g er fill th eir d o rmito ry
wash ers an d d ry ers with co in s, b ut credit th em u sin g a smartcard th ey rech arg e at th e
co lleg e bo o k store; lo ck s are n o lo n g er simp le mech an ical affairs, b u t are o p erated b y
electro n ic remo te co ntro ls o r swip e card s; an d in stead of rentin g v ideo cassettes, million s o f p eo p le g et th eir mo vies from satellite o r cable ch an n els. Ev en th e h u mb le
b ank n o te is n o lo n g er ju st in k o n p ap er, b u t may co n tain d igital watermark s th at en ab le
m a n y f o r g e r i e s t o b e d e t e c te d b y m a c h in e .
Ho w g o o d is all th is n ew secu rity tech n o lo gy ? Un fo rtu n ately , th e h o nest answer is
“n owh ere n ear as g o od as it sh o uld b e.” New sy stems are o ften rapid ly bro k en , an d th e
same elemen tary mistak es are repeated in o n e ap p licatio n after an oth er. It o ften takes
fo ur o r fiv e attemp ts to g et a secu rity d esig n rig h t, an d th at is far to o man y .
Th e med ia regu larly repo rt secu rity b reach es o n th e Intern et; b ank s figh t th eir cu sto mers o v er “p han to m with d rawals” from cash mach in es; VISA repo rts h u ge in creases
in th e n umb er o f d isp u ted In tern et cred it card tran sactio n s; satellite TV co mp an ies
h o un d p irates wh o co p y th eir smartcards; an d law en fo rcemen t ag en cies try to stak e
o u t territo ry in cy b ersp ace with laws co ntro llin g th e u se of en cry p tion . W o rse still,
featu res in teract. A mo b ile p h on e th at calls th e last n u mb er ag ain if o n e o f th e k ey s is
p ressed by accid en t may b e ju st a mino r n u isan ce—u n til so meo n e in ven ts a mach in e
th at d ispen ses a can o f so ft d rink ev ery time its p h o n e n u mb er is called . W h en all o f a
su dd en y ou fin d 5 0 cans o f Co k e o n y o u r ph o n e bill, wh o is resp o nsib le, th e p h on e
co mp an y , th e h an d set manu facturer, o r th e v end in g mach in e o p erato r? On ce almo st
ev ery electro n ic d evice th at affects y o ur life is co nn ected to th e In tern et—wh ich Microso ft ex p ects to h ap p en b y 2 01 0 —wh at d o es ‘In tern et secu rity ’ mean to y o u , an d
h o w d o y ou c o p e w i t h i t ?
As well as th e sy stems th at fail, many sy stems ju st d o n ’t wo rk well en ou g h . Med ical
reco rd systems d o n’t let d o cto rs sh are p erso n al h ealth in fo rmatio n as th ey wo uld like,
b u t still d o n ’t p ro tect it ag ain st in q u isitiv e p riv ate ey es. Zillio n -do llar military sy stems
p rev en t an y o n e with o u t a “top secret” clearan ce from g etting at in tellig en ce d ata, b u t
are o ften d esig n ed so th at almo st ev ery o n e n eed s th is clearan ce to d o an y wo rk . Passeng er tick et sy stems are d esig n ed to p rev ent cu sto mers ch eatin g , b u t wh en trustb usters b reak u p th e railro ad , th ey can no t stop th e n ew rail co mp an ies ch eatin g each o ther.

x ix

Many o f th ese failu res co uld h ave b een fo reseen if d esig n ers h ad ju st a little b it mo re
k n owled g e o f what h ad b een tried , an d h ad failed , elsewh ere.
Secu rity en gin eerin g is th e n ew d iscip line th at is startin g to emerg e o u t o f all this
ch ao s.
Alth o u g h mo st of th e u n derly ing techn o lo g ies (cry p to log y , so ftware reliab ility , tamp er resistan ce, secu rity p rin tin g , au ditin g , etc.) are relativ ely well u n dersto od , th e
k n owled g e an d ex p erien ce o f h o w to ap p ly th em effectiv ely is mu ch scarcer. An d since
th e mo v e from mech an ical to d igital mech an isms is h app en in g ev ery wh ere at o n ce,
th ere ju st h as n o t been time fo r th e lesso n s learn ed to p erco late th ro u g h th e en gin eerin g
co mmu n ity. Time an d ag ain, we see th e same o ld sq u are wh eels b ein g rein v ented .
Th e in d u stries th at h av e manag ed th e tran sition mo st capab ly are o ften th ose th at
h ave b een ab le to b o rro w an ap pro p riate tech n o lo gy fro m an oth er d iscip line. Ex amp les
in clu d e th e reuse o f tech n o lo gy d esign ed for military id en tify -frien d-o r-foe eq uip men t
in b an k cash mach in es an d ev en p repay men t g as meters. So ev en if a secu rity d esig n er
h as seriou s ex pertise in so me p articu lar sp eciality —wh eth er as a math ematician wo rk in g with cip h ers o r a ch emist d evelo p ing b an k n o te in k s—it is still p rud en t to h av e an
o v erv iew o f th e wh ole su bject. Th e essence o f g o od security en gin eerin g is u n derstan d in g th e p oten tial th reats to a sy stem, th en ap p ly in g an ap p ro p riate mix o f p rotective measu res—bo th tech n o lo g ical an d o rg anization al—to co ntro l th em. Kn owin g wh at
h as wo rk ed , an d mo re impo rtan tly wh at h as failed , in o th er ap plicatio n s is a great h elp
in d ev elop in g ju d g men t. It can also sav e a lo t o f mo ney .
T h e p u r p o s e o f t h is b o o k i s to g i v e a s o li d i n tr o d u c t i o n t o s e c u r i ty e n g i n e e r in g , a s
we u n d erstan d it at th e b egin n in g o f the twen ty -first centu ry . My g o al is th at it wo rk s
at fo u r differen t levels:

• As a t e x tb o o k th a t y ou c a n r e a d fr o m o ne e n d t o t h e o t h e r o v e r a f e w d a y s as
a n i n t r o du ct i o n t o t he s u b ject . The b o o k i s t o b e u sed main l y b y t h e wo rk i n g
I T p r o f e s s i o n a l w h o n e e d s t o l e a rn a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t , b u t i t c a n a l s o b e u s e d i n
a on e-s emes t er co u rs e i n a u n i v ers i t y .
• A s a r e f er e n c e b o o k t o w h i ch y o u c a n c o m e f o r a n o ve r v i e w o f t h e w o r ki n g s o f

s o me p a r ti cu l a r t yp e o f s yst em. Thes e s ys t ems i n cl u de cas h mach in es , t axi
meters , rad ar j ammers , an o n y mo u s med i cal reco rd d at abas es , an d s o o n .
• A s a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e u n d e r l yi n g t ec h n o l o g i e s , s u c h a s c r y p t o , a cc e s s co n -

t r o l , i n f e r e n c e c o n t r o l , t a m p e r r e s i s t a n c e , a n d s e a l s . S p a c e p re v e n t s m e f ro m
g o i n g i n t o g r e at d e p t h ; b u t I p r o v i d e a b a s i c r o a d m a p f o r e a c h s u b j ec t , p l u s a
r e ad i n g l i s t f o r t h e c u r i o u s ( a n d a l i s t o f o p e n r es e a r c h p r o b l e m s f o r t h e p r o s p ec t i v e g r a d u at e s t u d e n t ) .
• A s a n o r i g i n a l s c i e n t i f i c co n t r i b u t i o n i n w h i c h I h a v e t r i e d t o d r a w o u t t h e

co mmo n p ri n ci p les t h at u n d er l i e secu r i ty en g in eer i ng , a n d t h e les s o n s t h a t
p e o p l e b u i l d i n g o n e ki n d o f s y s t em s h o u l d h a ve l e a r n e d f r o m o t h e r s . I n t h e
m a n y y e a rs I h a v e b e e n w o r k i n g i n s e c u ri t y , I k e e p c o m i n g a c r o s s t h e s e . F o r
e x am p l e , a s i m p l e a t t a c k o n s t r e am c i p h e r s w as n ’ t k n o w n t o t h e p e o p l e w h o
d esi g n ed a co mmo n an ti ai rcraft fire co nt ro l rad ar so i t was easy t o jam; whi l e
a tri ck wel l k no wn t o t h e rad ar co mmu n it y wasn ’t u nd ers t oo d b y b an k n ot e
p rin t ers an d p eo p l e wh o d esi g n cop y ri g ht marki n g s ch emes , wh i ch l ed to a
q u i t e g e n e r a l a t t a c k o n m o s t d i g i t a l w a t e r m a rk s .

xx

I hav e tried to k eep th is b oo k reso lu tely mid-Atlantic; a secu rity en gin eerin g b o ok
h as to b e, as man y o f th e fu n d amen tal tech n o lo gies are American , wh ile many o f th e
in terestin g ap plicatio n s are Eu ro p ean . (This isn’t su rp rising g iven th e b etter fu nd in g of
U.S. u n iversities an d research labs, an d th e g reater d iversity o f n atio n s an d mark ets in
Eu ro p e.) W h at’s mo re, many o f th e su ccessful Eu ro p ean in no v atio n s—fro m th e smartcard to th e GSM mo bile p h on e to th e p ay -p er-v iew TV serv ice—hav e crossed th e Atlantic and n o w th riv e in th e Americas. B o th th e scien ce, an d th e case stud ies, are n ece s sa r y .
Th is b o o k g rew o u t o f the secu rity en gin eerin g co urses I teach at C amb rid g e Un iv ersity , b u t I h ave rewritten my n o tes to mak e th em self-co n tain ed an d ad d ed at least as
mu ch material ag ain . It sh ou ld b e u seful to th e estab lish ed p rofession al secu rity man ag er o r co n su ltan t as a first-lin e referen ce; to th e co mp u ter scien ce p rofesso r d o in g
research in cryp to lo gy ; to th e wo rk in g p o lice d etectiv e tryin g to fig u re o u t th e latest
co mp u ter scam; an d to p olicy wo n k s stru g g lin g with th e co nflicts in vo lv ed in regu latin g cry p to g rap hy an d an on y mity. Ab ov e all, it is aimed at Dilb ert. My main au dien ce
is th e work in g p rog rammer o r en gin eer wh o is try in g to d esig n real sy stems th at will
k eep o n wo rk in g d esp ite th e b est efforts o f cu sto mers, manag ers, an d ev eryb o d y else.
T h is b o o k i s d iv i d e d i n t o th r e e p a r t s .
• T h e f i r s t l o o k s a t b a s i c c o n ce p t s , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e c e n t r al c o n ce p t o f a s e cu r i t y

p r o t o c o l , a n d g o i n g o n t o h u m a n - co m p u t er i n t er f a c e i s s u e s , a c c es s c o n t r o l s ,
c r y p t o l o g y , a n d d i s t ri b u t e d s y s t e m i s s u e s . I t d o e s n o t a s s u m e a n y p a rt i c u l a r
t e ch n i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o t h e r t h a n b a s i c co m p u t er l i t er a c y . I t i s b a s e d o n a n I n t rod u ct i on t o Secu ri ty co u rs e t h at I t each t o s eco nd -y ear u n d erg rad u at es .
• T h e s e c o n d p a r t l o o k s i n m u c h m o re d e t a i l a t a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t a p p l i c a -

t i on s , s uch as mi l i t ary co mmu n i cat i o n s , med i cal reco rd s ys t ems , cas h mach in es , mo b i l e p h o n es, an d p ay -TV. Th ese are u s ed to i n t ro d u ce mo re of t h e
a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i e s a n d c o n c e p t s . I t a l s o c o n s i d e r s i n fo r m a t i o n s e c u r i t y
from t h e v i ewp oi n t o f a n u mb er o f d i fferen t in t erest g ro up s , s uch as co mp an i es , co ns u mers, cri mi n al s , p o l i ce, an d s p i es. Th i s mat eri al i s d rawn fro m my
s e n i o r c o u r s e o n s e c u r i t y , f r o m re s e a r c h w o r k , a n d f r o m e x p e r i e n c e c o n s u l t i n g .
• Th e t h i rd p art l o o k s at t h e o rg ani zat i on al and p o l icy i s su es : ho w co mp u t er s e-

c u ri t y i n t e r a c t s w i t h l a w , w i t h e v i d e n c e , a n d w i t h c o r p o ra t e p o l i t i c s ; h o w w e
c a n g a i n c o n f i d e n c e t h a t a s y s t e m w i l l p e r f o rm a s i n t e n d e d ; a n d h o w t h e w h o l e
b u s i n e s s o f s e cu r i t y e n g i n ee r i n g c a n b es t b e m a n a g ed .
I believ e th at b u ild in g sy stems th at co ntin u e to p erfo rm ro bu stly in th e face o f malice is o ne o f th e mo st impo rtan t, in terestin g , an d d ifficu lt task s facin g en gin eers in th e
twen ty -first centu ry .
Ro ss An d erso n
C amb rid g e, Janu ary 2 0 01

xxi

About the Author
W h y sh o u ld I h av e b een th e p erso n to write th is b o o k? W ell, I seem to h av e accu mu lated th e righ t mix o f ex p erien ce an d q u alificatio n s o v er th e last 2 5 years. I grad u ated
in math ematics an d n atu ral scien ce from C amb rid g e (Eng lan d ) in th e 1 9 70 s, and g o t a
q u alificatio n in co mp u ter en gin eerin g ; my first p rop er jo b was in av io n ics; an d I became in terested in cry p tolo g y an d co mp u ter secu rity in th e mid -1 9 8 0s. After wo rk in g
in th e b an k in g in d u stry fo r several y ears, I started d o in g co nsu ltancy fo r co mp an ies
th at d esig n ed eq u ip men t fo r b ank s, and th en wo rk in g o n o th er ap plicatio n s o f th is
tech n o lo gy , su ch as prep ay men t electricity meters.
I mo v ed to acad emia in 1 9 92 , b u t co n tin u ed to co n su lt to in d u stry o n secu rity tech n o lo g y . Du rin g the 1 9 90 s, the n u mber o f ap plicatio n s th at emplo y ed cryp to lo gy ro se
rapid ly : b u rg lar alarms, car d o or lo ck s, road to ll tags, an d satellite TV en cry p tion sy stems all made th eir ap pearan ce. As th e first legal d isp u tes ab ou t th ese sy stems came
alon g , I was luck y en ou g h to b e an ex p ert witn ess in so me o f th e imp o rtan t cases. Th e
research team I lead h ad th e g o od fo rtu n e to b e in th e rig ht p lace at th e righ t time wh en
several cru cial tech n o lo gies, su ch as tamp er resistan ce an d d ig ital watermarkin g , b ecame h o t to pics.
B y ab o u t 1 9 9 6 , it started to b ecome clear to me th at th e ex istin g textb o o k s were to o
sp ecialized . Th e secu rity textb o o k s fo cu sed on th e access co ntro l mech an isms in o p era t in g s y s t e m s , w h il e t h e c r y p t o l o g y b o o k s g a v e v e r y d e ta i l e d e x p o s i t i o n s o f t h e d e s i g n
o f cry p tog rap h ic algo rith ms an d p ro toco ls. Th ese to pics are in terestin g , an d imp o rtan t.
Ho wev er th ey are o n ly p art o f th e story . Most sy stem d esig n ers are n o t o v erly con cern ed with cryp to o r o p eratin g sy stem in tern als, b u t with h o w to u se these to ols effectiv ely. Th ey are q u ite righ t in th is, as th e in ap p ro p riate u se o f mech an isms is o n e o f
th e main causes o f secu rity failu re. I was en co u rag ed b y th e success o f a n u mber o f
articles I wro te o n secu rity en gin eerin g (startin g with “W hy C ryp to sy stems Fail” in
1 9 93 ); and th e n eed to teach an u n d ergrad u ate class in secu rity led to th e d ev elo p men t
o f a set o f lectu re n o tes th at mad e u p ab o u t h alf o f th is bo o k . Fin ally, in 19 9 9 , I g o t
ro un d to rewritin g th em fo r a gen eral tech n ical au dien ce.
I hav e learn ed a lo t in th e p ro cess; writin g d o wn wh at y o u th in k y o u kn o w is a g o od
way o f fin d in g o u t wh at y o u d o n ’t. I h av e also h ad a lo t o f fu n . I h o pe y o u h av e as
mu ch fu n read in g it!

x x ii

Foreword
In a p ap er h e wrote with R o ger Need h am, R o ss An d erso n co in ed the p h rase “p ro g rammin g Satan ’s co mp u ter” to d escrib e th e p rob lems faced b y co mp u ter-secu rity en g ineers. It’s th e so rt o f ev o cativ e imag e I’v e co me to ex p ect from R o ss, an d a ph rase
I’ve u sed ev er since.
Prog rammin g a co mp u ter is straig h tfo rward: k eep h ammerin g away at th e p rob lem
u n til th e co mp uter d o es wh at it’s su pp o sed to d o . Larg e ap plicatio n p rog rams an d o p eratin g sy stems are a lo t mo re co mp licated , b u t th e meth o d olo g y is b asically th e same.
W ritin g a reliab le co mp u ter p rog ram is mu ch h ard er, b ecau se th e p rog ram n eed s to
wo rk ev en in th e face o f rand o m erro rs an d mistak es: Mu rp h y ’s co mp u ter, if y o u will.
Sign ifican t research h as g o ne in to reliab le so ftware d esig n , an d th ere are many mission -critical so ftware ap plicatio n s th at are d esig n ed to with stan d Mu rp h y ’s Law.
W ritin g a secu re co mp u ter p rog ram is an oth er matter en tirely . Secu rity in vo lv es
makin g sure th in g s work , n o t in the p resen ce o f ran d o m faults, bu t in th e face o f an
in tellig en t an d malicio u s ad versary tryin g to en su re th at th in g s fail in th e worst p o ssib le way at th e wo rst p o ssib le time ... ag ain an d ag ain . It truly is p ro g rammin g Satan ’s
co mp u ter.
Secu rity en gin eerin g is d ifferen t from an y o ther k ind o f pro g rammin g . It’s a po in t I
made o v er an d o v er ag ain : in my o wn b o ok , S ecrets an d Lies, in my mo nth ly newsletter C ryp to -Gra m, an d in my o ther writin g s. An d it’s a po in t Ro ss mak es in ev ery
ch ap ter of th is b o ok . Th is is wh y , if y o u’re d o in g an y secu rity en gin eerin g ... if y o u’re
ev en th in kin g o f d o in g an y secu rity en gin eerin g , y o u n eed to read th is b o o k. It’s th e
first, and o n ly , en d-to -end mo dern secu rity d esig n and en gin eerin g b o ok ev er written .
An d it comes ju st in time. Yo u can d ivid e the h isto ry of th e In tern et in to th ree
waves. The first wave centered arou n d main frames an d termin als. C o mp u ters were ex p ensiv e an d rare. Th e seco n d wav e, from ab ou t 1 9 92 u n til n o w, cen tered arou n d p erso nal co mp u ters, b rowsers, an d larg e ap plicatio n p rog rams. An d th e th ird , startin g
n o w, will see th e co n n ectio n o f all so rts o f d evices th at are cu rren tly in p rop rietary
n etwo rk s, stan d alo ne, an d n o n -co mp u terized . B y 2 0 03 , th ere will b e mo re mo bile
p h on es con n ected to th e In tern et th an co mpu ters. W ith in a few y ears we’ll see many o f
th e wo rld’s refrig erato rs, h eart mo nito rs, b u s an d train tick et d isp en sers, b u rg lar
alarms, an d electricity meters talk in g IP. Perso n al co mp u ters will b e a min o rity p lay er
o n t h e I n t e r n e t.
Secu rity en gin eerin g , especially in th is th ird wave, requ ires y o u to thin k d ifferently .
Yo u n eed to figu re o u t n o t ho w so meth in g wo rk s, b ut h o w so meth in g can b e mad e to
n o t wo rk . Yo u hav e to imag in e an in tellig en t an d malicio u s ad versary in sid e y o ur sy stem (rememb er Satan ’s co mp u ter), co nstan tly tryin g n ew ways to su b v ert it. Yo u hav e
to co n sider all th e ways y o ur sy stem can fail, mo st o f th em h avin g n oth in g to d o with
th e d esign itself. Yo u h av e to lo ok at ev ery thin g b ack ward s, u p sid e d own , and sid eways. Yo u h av e to th in k like an alien .
As th e late g reat scien ce fictio n ed ito r Joh n W . C amp b ell, said : “An alien th in k s as
well as a h u man , b u t n o t lik e a h u man .” C o mp u ter secu rity is a lo t like th at. R o ss is

x x ii i

o n e o f tho se rare p eop le who can th in k like an alien , an d th en ex plain th at th in k in g to
h u man s. Hav e fu n read in g .
B r uc e S c hn e i e r
J a nu a r y 20 0 1

x x iv

Acknowledgments
A great many p eop le h av e h elp ed in v ario u s way s with th is b o o k. I p ro b ab ly o we th e
g reatest th an k s to th ose wh o read th e manu script (o r a larg e p art o f it) lo ok in g fo r erro rs an d o b scu rities. Th ey were An ne An derso n , Ian B rown , Nick B o hm, R ich ard
B o nd i, C asp ar B owd en , R ich ard C lay to n , Stev e Early , R ich Grav eman , Mark u s Ku hn ,
Dan Lo ug h , Dav id MacKay , Jo hn McHug h , B o b Mo rris, R o ger Need h am, Jerry Saltzer, Marv Schaefer, Karen Sp ärck Jo nes an d Fran k Stajan o . Mu ch cred it also g o es to
my ed ito r, C aro l Lo ng , wh o (amo n g many o ther th in g s) went th ro u g h th e first six
ch ap ters an d co ach ed me o n th e sty le ap pro p riate fo r a pro fessio n al (as o p po sed to
acad emic) b o ok . At th e p ro o fread ing stag e, I go t q u ite in valu ab le h elp fro m C aro la
B o hm, Mike B o nd , R ich ard C lay to n , Georg e Danezis, an d B ru ce Go dfrey .
A larg e n u mb er o f su bject ex p erts also h elp ed me with p articu lar ch ap ters o r section s. R ich ard B o nd i h elp ed me refin e th e d efin ition s in C h ap ter 1 ; Jian x in Yan, Alan
B lack well an d Alasdair Gran t h elp ed me in vestig ate th e ap plied psy ch o lo g y asp ects o f
p asswo rd s; Jo hn Go rdo n an d Serg ei Sk oro b o g ato v were my main so urces o n remo te
k ey en try d ev ices; W h it Diffie an d Mik e B rown o n IFF; Stev e Early o n Un ix secu rity
(alth o u g h so me o f my material is b ased o n lectu res g iven b y Ian Jack so n ); Mike R o e,
Ian Kelly, Paul Leylan d , an d Fabien Petitco las o n th e secu rity o f W ind o ws NT4 an d
W in2 K; Virg il Glig o r o n th e h isto ry o f memo ry o v erwritin g attack s, an d o n man d ato ry
in teg rity p o licies; an d Jean B aco n o n d istrib u ted sy stems. Gary Grau n k e to ld me th e
h isto ry of p ro tectio n in In tel p rocesso rs; Orr Du nk elman fo un d many b u gs in a d raft o f
th e cry p to ch apter an d Jo h n B razier p o in ted me to th e Hump ty Du mp ty q u ote.
Mo vin g to th e seco n d p art o f th e b o o k , th e ch ap ter o n mu ltilev el secu rity was mu ch
impro v ed b y in p u t fro m Jeremy Ep stein , Virg il Glig o r, Jo ng -Hy eon Lee, Ira Mo sk o witz, Pau l Karg er, R ick Smith , Fran k Stajan o , an d Simo n W iseman , wh ile Fran k also
h elp ed with th e fo llo win g two ch ap ters. Th e material o n med ical sy stems was o rig in a ll y d e v e l o p e d w i t h a n u m b e r o f p e o p l e a t t h e B r it i s h M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t io n , m o s t n o tably Fleu r Fish er, Simo n Jenk in s, an d Gran t Kelly . Denise Schman d t-B esserat taug h t
th e wo rld ab ou t b u llae, wh ich p rov ided th e b ack g ro u nd fo r th e ch ap ter o n b an k ing
sy stems; th at ch ap ter was also stren g th en ed b y in pu t from Fay Hid er an d W illie List.
Th e ch ap ter o n alarms co ntain s mu ch th at I was taug h t b y R o g er Need h am, Peter Dean ,
Jo hn Martin , Fran k C lish , and Gary Geld art. Nu clear co mman d an d co ntro l sy stems are
mu ch th e b rain ch ild o f Gu s Simmo n s; h e an d B o b Mo rris taug h t me mu ch o f wh at’s in
th at ch apter.
Sijb ran d Sp an n en b urg reviewed th e ch ap ter o n secu rity p rin tin g ; an d R o ger Jo hn sto n
h as tau g ht u s all an en ormo u s amo u nt ab ou t seals. Jo hn Daug man h elp ed p olish th e
ch ap ter on b iometrics, as well as in ven tin g iris scan n in g wh ich I describe th ere. My
tu to rs o n tamp er resistan ce were Oliv er Kö mmerling an d Mark u s Ku hn ; Mark u s also
wo rk ed with me o n emissio n secu rity . I had sub stan tial in pu t o n electro n ic warfare
from Mike B rown an d Owen Lewis. Th e ch ap ter o n p h o n e frau d o wes a lo t to Du n can
C amp b ell, R ich ard C o x, R ich Grav eman , Ud i Manb er, An drew Od ly zk o an d R o y
Paterso n . Ian Jack so n co n tribu ted so me id eas o n n etwo rk secu rity . Fabien Petitco las

xxv

‘wro te th e b o ok ’ o n co p y rig h t mark in g, an d h elp ed p o lish my ch ap ter o n it. Joh an n
B ezu id en ho u d t mad e p ercep tive co mmen ts o n b o th ph o n e frau d an d electro n ic co mmerce, wh ile Peter Land ro ck g ave v aluab le in pu t o n b o o k k eep in g an d electro nic co mmerce sy stems. Alistair Kelman was a fo u n t of k n owled g e o n th e leg al aspects o f
co py rig h t; an d Hal Varian k ept me straig h t o n matters o f econ o mics, an d p articu larly
th e ch ap ters o n e-co mmerce an d assu ran ce.
As fo r the th ird p art o f th e b o o k , th e ch ap ter o n e-p o licy was h eav ily in flu enced b y
co lleag u es at th e Fo u n datio n fo r In fo rmatio n Po licy R esearch , n o tab ly C asp ar B o wd en ,
Nick B o hm, Fleu r Fish er, B rian Glad man , Ian B rown , R ich ard C lay to n —an d b y th e
many o th ers in vo lv ed in th e fig h t, in clu d in g W h it Diffie, Jo hn Gilmo re, Su san Land au ,
B rian Omotan i an d Mark R o ten b erg. Th e ch ap ter o n man ag emen t b enefited from in pu t
from R o bert B rad y , Jack Lan g, an d W illie List. Finally , my th in k in g o n assu ran ce h as
b een in flu en ced b y many p eop le, in clu d in g R o bin B all, R o b ert B rad y , W illie List, an d
R o be r t M or r i s .
Th ere were also many p eop le o ver th e y ears wh o taug h t me my trad e. Th e fo remo st
o f th em is R o ger Need h am, wh o was my th esis ad viso r; b u t I also learn ed a lo t from
h u nd red s o f en gin eers, p rog rammers, au dito rs, lawy ers, an d p o licemen with wh om I
wo rk ed o n v ariou s co nsu ltancy jo bs o v er th e last 1 5 y ears. Of co urse, I take th e rap fo r
all th e remain in g erro rs an d o missio n s.
Finally , I...

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Question:
LPI and LPD are usually used in describing the characteristics of radio communication,
but can be applied to any communications method. Describe briefly if and how the
following are LPD,...

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