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Last updated: 2/10/2006 4:32 PM Problem M2. Cache Access-Time & Performance This problem requires the knowledge of Handout #6 (Cache...

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Last updated: 2/10/2006 4:32 PM Problem M2.1: Cache Access-Time & Performance This problem requires the knowledge of Handout #6 (Cache Implementations) and Lecture 7. Please, read these materials before answering the following questions. Ben is trying to determine the best cache configuration for a new processor. He knows how to build two kinds of caches: direct-mapped caches and 4-way set-associative caches. The goal is to find the better cache configuration with the given building blocks. He wants to know how these two different configurations affect the clock speed and the cache miss-rate, and choose the one that provides better performance in terms of average latency for a load. Problem M2.1.A Access Time: Direct-Mapped Now we want to compute the access time of a direct-mapped cache. We use the implementation shown in Figure H6-A in Handout #6. Assume a 128-KB cache with 8- word (32-byte) cache lines. The address is 32 bits, and the two least significant bits of the address are ignored since a cache access is word-aligned. The data output is also 32 bits, and the MUX selects one word out of the eight words in a cache line. Using the delay equations given in Table M2.1-1, fill in the column for the direct-mapped (DM) cache in the table. In the equation for the data output driver, ‘associativity’ refers to the associativity of the cache (1 for direct-mapped caches, A for A-way set-associative caches). Component Delay equation (ps) DM (ps) SA (ps) Decoder 200 × (# of index bits) + 1000 Tag Data Memory array 200 × log 2 (# of rows) + Tag 200 × log 2 (# of bits in a row) + 1000 Data Comparator 200 × (# of tag bits) + 1000 N-to-1 MUX 500 × log 2 N + 1000 Buffer driver 2000 Data output driver 500 × (associativity) + 1000 Valid output driver 1000 Table M2.1-1: Delay of each Cache Component What is the critical path of this direct-mapped cache for a cache read? What is the access time of the cache (the delay of the critical path)? To compute the access time, assume that a 2-input gate (AND, OR) delay is 500 ps. If the CPU clock is 150 MHz, how many CPU cycles does a cache access take?
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•• •• •• •• •• •• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• •• •• •• •• •• Last updated: 2/10/2006 4:32 PM Problem M2.1.B Access Time: Set-Associative We also want to investigate the access time of a set-associative cache using the 4-way set-associative cache in Figure H6-B in Handout #6. Assume the total cache size is still 128-KB (each way is 32-KB), a 4-input gate delay is 1000 ps, and all other parameters (such as the input address, cache line, etc.) are the same as part M2.1.A. Compute the delay of each component, and fill in the column for a 4-way set-associative cache in Table M2.1-1. What is the critical path of the 4-way set-associative cache? What is the access time of the cache (the delay of the critical path)? What is the main reason that the 4-way set- associative cache is slower than the direct-mapped cache? If the CPU clock is 150 MHz, how many CPU cycles does a cache access take? Input Address Tag Index 4 × 2 b-2 S T S T S T S T Data Decoder Valid = MUX = = = data words MUX Tag Decoder Valid Bit Output Driver Buffer Driver Comparator MUX MUX Page 2 of 34
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