organize to reach the goals (establish a quality council, identify problems, select projects, appoint teams, designate facilitators)
maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company
When using the ____, the project manager deemphasizes or avoids areas of differences and emphasizes areas of agreement.
____ is the earned value minus the planned value.
____ is best known for developing Theory X and Theory Y.
Project sponsors can usually rank scope, time, and cost goals in order of importance in a(n) ____.
expectations management matrix
responsibility assignment matrix
Psychologist David Merril describes ____ as reactive and people-oriented.
The ____ is the ratio of earned value to planned value and can be used to estimate the projected time to complete the project.
Abraham Maslow, a highly respected psychologist, rejected the dehumanizing negativism of psychology in the ____.
____, a quality system standard developed by the ISO, is a three-part, continuous cycle of planning, controlling, and documenting quality in an organization.
____ involves prioritizing risks based on their probability and impact of occurrence.
Performing qualitative risk analysis
Planning risk management
Planning risk responses
Performing quantitative risk analysis
Many organizations use ____ and templates to generate SOWs.
It takes ____ to help improve communication.
highly skilled employees
____ involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing timely feedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project performance.
Developing the human resource plan
Developing the project team
Acquiring the project team
Managing the project team
Buyers typically develop a short list of the top ____ suppliers to reduce the work involved in selecting a source.
one to two
three to five
eight to ten
twelve to fifteen
KLCI Research Group’s 2001 survey revealed that ____ percent of the organizations surveyed had a Project Management Office.
A(n) ____ is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time.
responsibility assignment matrix
organizational breakdown structure
A certainty factor of 1.960 is used for ____ percent desired certainty.
Information regarding the content of essential project communications comes from the ____.
communications management plan
work breakdown structure (WBS)
expectations management matrix
Research indicates that project managers favor using ____ for conflict resolution over the other four modes.
According to the Standish Group’s success potential scoring sheet, ____ has the highest relative importance.
executive management support
clear statement of requirements
____ applies to positive risks when the project team cannot or chooses not to take any actions toward a risk.
One of ____ 14 Points for Management states that an organization should cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality.
____ is a cost that relates to all errors not detected and not corrected before delivery to the customer.
Internal failure cost
External failure cost
The ____ process is often associated with the technical tools and techniques of quality management, such as Pareto charts, quality control charts, and statistical sampling.
____ emphasizes things such as job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus specialization, and the need for continuous training of workers.
As the number of people involved in a project ____, the complexity of communications ____.
increases, stays constant
The ____ is that portion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period.
____ helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes.
According to the guideline governing ____, designate someone to take minutes and send the minutes out soon after the meeting.
running the meeting professionally
providing an agenda to participants before the meeting
determining who should attend the meeting
____ is a fact-finding technique for collecting information in face-to-face, phone, e-mail, or instant-messaging discussions.
The Delphi technique
With a(n) ____ contract, the buyer pays the supplier for allowable performance costs along with a predetermined fee and an incentive bonus.
Two people have ____ communications channel(s).
Utility rises at a decreasing rate for a ____ person.
____, with assistance from financial experts in their organizations, should create estimates of the costs and benefits of the project for its entire life cycle.
People with a high need for ____ desire harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by others.
____ analysis simulates a model’s outcome many times to provide a statistical distribution of the calculated results.
A(n) ____ is a document used to solicit proposals from prospective suppliers.
With the ____, project managers use a give-and-take approach to resolving conflicts.
A(n) ____ is a diagramming analysis technique used to help select the best course of action in situations in which future outcomes are uncertain.
Monte Carlo analysis
In the Tuckman model, ____ occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the team goals, rather than working on team process.
The ____ mode is also called the problem-solving mode.
Psychologist David Merril describes ____ as reactive and task-oriented.
A(n) ____ is done to test each individual component (often a program) to ensure that it is as defect-free as possible.
user acceptance test
____ issues cause the most conflicts over the project life cycle.
The project management plan, project funding requirements, work performance data, and organizational process assets are inputs for the process of ____.
Since information technology projects often require a lot of coordination, it is a good idea to have ____ meetings.
The ____ is an estimate of what it will cost to complete the project based on performance to date.
KLCI Research Group’s 2001 survey revealed that the most frequently cited benefit from software risk management practices is to ____.
improve ability to negotiate
meet customer commitments
A ____ is done very early in a project or even before a project is officially started.
rough order of magnitude estimate
The ____ states that if seven data points in a row are all below the mean, above the mean, or are all increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for non-random problems.
ten run rule
six 9s of quality rule
seven run rule
Six Sigma rule