Assume Bob sends an Elgamal encrypted message to Alice. Wrongly, Bob

uses the same parameter i for all messages. Moreover, we know that each of Bob’s

cleartexts start with the number x1 = 21 (Bob’s ID). We now obtain the following

ciphertexts

(kE,1 = 6,y1 = 17),

(kE,2 = 6,y2 = 25).

The Elgamal parameters are p = 31,α = 3,β = 18. Determine the second plaintext

x2.

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