1.Support the theories Trait Theory, Behavioral Theory, Rational Choice
Theory, Social Bond Theory, and Social Process Theory using the information on the background of the criminal and not the crime, therefore apply information about all or some of the following through the personal background history of the offender regarding: education, early school years, childhood/upbringing, academics & extra curricular activity, friendships, romantic relationships, lifestyle, employment history, financial stability, employment history, co-worker relationships, social life, family and community ties, housing, alcohol & drug use, criminal record, religious involvement, health & medical history, parent-child relationship, hobbies, etc. and any that may apply. Identify the circumstances surrounding the crimes and the offender's background/life history as evidence to support the theories.
2.Explain the theories Trait Theory, Behavioral Theory, Rational Choice Theory, Social Bond Theory, and Social Process Theory, and why it is appropriate to apply to the criminal's behavior. How and/or why the criminal behavior occurred and an understanding of the criminal who committed them.
3.Explain the connection you found between the criminal's life and the theories Trait Theory, Behavioral Theory, Rational Choice Theory, Social Bond Theory, and Social Process Theory on criminal behavior, and use that information to support the points. Use events from the past as examples to support theories that would tie into reasons why he may have committed the criminal behavior.
4.Using the NYS Penal Code, name and explain the laws regarding the specific crime(s) committed, and the potential punishment under the sentencing guidelines, and actual sentence rendered.
(BELOW ARE THE LINK OF ANDRE CRAWFORD CASE)
(BELOW ARE THE THEORIES)
In 1964, Hans J. Eysenck, a British psychologist, published Crime and Personality, a book in which he explained crime as the result of fundamental personality characteristics, or traits, which he believed are largely inherited.40 Psychological traits are stable personality patterns that tend to endure throughout the life course and across social and cultural contexts. They include behavioral, cognitive, and affective predispositions to respond to a given situation in a particular way. According to trait theory, as an individual grows older or moves from one place to another, his or her personality remains largely intact—defined by the traits that comprise it. Trait theory links personality (and associated traits) to behavior and holds that it is an individual's personality, combined with his or her intelligence and natural abilities,41 that determines his or her behavior in a given situation. Eysenck believed that the degree to which just three universal supertraits are present in an individual accounts for his or her unique personality. He termed these supertraits (1) introversion/extraversion, (2) neuroticism/emotional stability, and (3) psychoticism. Eysenck thought that people who score high on extraversion, neuroticism, or psychoticism are not easily conditioned or socialized, and thus commit more crime in adulthood. Like many other psychologists, he accepted the fact that personality holds steady throughout much of life, but stressed that it is largely determined by genetics. He argued that what we call personality is a reflection of variations in the component operating systems of the major behavioral pathways of the brain.
In support of his idea of the genetic basis of personality, Eysenck pointed to twin studies showing that identical twins display strikingly similar behavioral tendencies, whereas fraternal twins demonstrate far less likelihood of similar behaviors. Eysenck also argued that psychological conditioning occurs more rapidly in some people than in others because of biological differences, and that antisocial individuals are difficult to condition (or to socialize) because of underlying genetic characteristics. He believed that up to two-thirds of all "behavioral variance" could be strongly attributed to genetics.43
Behavior theory, the second main thrust of early psychological theorizing, built upon the concept of conditioned behavior. The idea that behavior could be "conditioned" or shaped was popularized through the work of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), whose work with dogs won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1904. The dogs, which salivated when food was presented to them, were always fed in the presence of a ringing bell. Soon, Pavlov found, the dogs would salivate as if in preparation for eating when the bell alone was rung, even when no food was present. Hence, salivation, an automatic response to the presence of food, could be conditioned to occur in response to some other stimulus, demonstrating that animal behavior could be predictably altered via association with external changes arising from the environment surrounding the organism. The kind of conditioning that Pavlov demonstrated, which is the association of a particular response to a conditioned stimulus, is referred to today as classical conditioning.
The concept of conditioned behavior was popularized through the work of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Behavioral Conditioning
Behavior theory has sometimes been called the "stimulus-response theory of human behavior." When an individual's behavior results in rewards or feedback that the individual regards as pleasurable and desirable, then that behavior will likely become more frequent. Under such circumstances, the behavior in question is reinforced, and the rewards themselves are referred to as reinforcements. Conversely, when punishment follows behavior, chances are that the frequency of that type of behavior will decrease. The individual's responses are termed operant behavior because a person's behavioral choices effectively operate on the surrounding environment to produce consequences for the individual.
Behavior theory is often used by parents seeking to control children through a series of rewards and punishments. Young children may be punished, for example, by being spanked, by having a favored toy taken away, and by the television being turned off. Older children are often told what rules they are expected to obey and what rewards they can anticipate if they adhere to those rules. They also know that punishments will follow if they do not obey the rules.
Social Bond Theory
An important form of social control theory was popularized by Travis Hirschi in his 1969 book The Crime Problem.30 Hirschi's approach was well received by criminologists and "epitomized social control theorizing for nearly three decades."31 Hirschi argued that through successful socialization, a bond forms between individuals and the social group, but when that bond is weakened or broken, deviance and crime may result. Hirschi described four components of the social
The first component, attachment, refers to a person's shared interests with others. In his writings, Hirschi cites the psychopath as an example of the kind of person whose attachment to society is nearly nonexistent.32 Other relatively normal individuals may find their attachment to society loosened through "the process of becoming alienated from others [which] often involves or is based on active interpersonal conflict," says Hirschi. "Such conflict could easily supply a reservoir of socially derived hostility sufficient to account for the aggressiveness of those whose attachments to others have been weakened."33
The second component of the social bond—commitment—reflects a person's investment of time and energies into conforming behavior and the potential loss of the rewards that he or she has already gained from that behavior. In Hirschi's words, "The idea, then, is that the person invests time, energy, himself, in a certain line of activity—say, getting an education, building up a business, acquiring a reputation for virtue. Whenever he considers deviant behavior, he must consider the costs of this deviant behavior, the risk he runs of losing the investment he has made in conventional behavior."34 For such a traditionally successful person, committing petty theft is stupid because the potential loss far exceeds the possible gains. Recognizing that his approach applies primarily to individuals who have been successfully socialized into conventional society, Hirschi added, "The concept of commitment assumes that the organization of society is such that the interests of most persons would be endangered if they were to engage in criminal acts."35
Involvement, the third aspect, means "engrossment in conventional activities"36 and is similar to Reckless's concept of meaningful roles. In explaining the importance of involvement in determining conformity, Hirschi cited the colloquial saying that "idle hands are the devil's workshop"—time and energy are limited, so if a person is busy with legitimate pursuits, he or she will have little opportunity for crime and deviance.
Belief (the last of his four aspects of the social bond) sets Hirschi's control theory apart from subcultural approaches because "control theory assumes the existence of a common value system within the society or group whose norms are being violated. We not only assume the deviant has believed the rules [but also] assume he believes the rules even as he violates them."37 How can a person simultaneously believe it is wrong to commit a crime and still commit it? Hirschi's answer would be that "many persons do not have an attitude of respect toward the rules of society."38 Although they know the rules exist, they basically do not care and invest little of their sense of self in moral standards.
Social Process Theory
Social process theories of crime causation assume that everyone has the potential to violate the law and that criminality is not an innate human characteristic; instead, criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others, and the socialization process occurring as the result of group membership is seen as the primary route through which learning occurs. Among the most important groups contributing to the process of socialization are the family, peers, work groups, and reference groups with which one identifies because they instill values and norms in their members and communicate their acceptable worldviews and patterns of behavior.
Rational Choice Theory
Rational choice theory (RCT), a product of the late 1980s, mirrors many of the principles found in classical criminology. The theory, as described by Ronald V. Clarke and Derek B. Cornish,21 rests upon the belief that criminals make a conscious, rational, and at least partially informed choice to commit crime and employs cost-benefit analysis (as in the field of economics), viewing human behavior as the result of personal choices made after weighing both the costs and benefits of available alternatives. "[Rational choice] predicts that individuals choose to commit crime when the benefits outweigh the costs of disobeying the law. Crime will decrease when opportunities are limited benefits are reduced, and costs are increased."22 Figure 3-3 diagrams the steps that are likely to be involved in making a choice to commit a property crime. A somewhat different model can be applied in the case of drug offenders since most people who decide to deal drugs do so with an entrepreneurial spirit and often see their activities as a kind of rational business undertaking. Some, in fact, have been known to keep records of their transactions, to include profit- and-loss statements—and even computer-based spreadsheets in an effort to maximize profits.
In brief, rational choice theorists concentrate on "the decision-making process of offenders confronted with specific contexts," and have shifted "the focus of the effort to prevent crime from broad social programs to target hardening, environmental design or any impediment that would [dissuade] a motivated offender from offending."27 Twenty-five techniques of situational crime control can be identified, and each can be classified according to the five objectives of situational prevention. Figure 3-4 outlines those objectives and provides examples of each.
CASES OF RAPE
UCR/NIBRS statistics on rape, as currently reported, include cases of both rape and attempted rape. Statutory rape (sexual relations between an underage female minor and an adult male) and other sex offenses are excluded from the count of rape crimes. In 2016, 130,603 rapes were reported nationwide under the UCR Program. As Figure 11-5 shows, the risk of sexual assault victimization for both females and males varies greatly by age. Figure 11-6 details the age at the time of first rape victimization among females. Reports to the police of the crime of rape rarely reveal its true incidence. Recently, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (a part of the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) released its National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. The most recent report shows that nearly 1 in 5 women (18.3%) and 1 in 71 men (1.4%) in the United States have been raped at some time in their lives, including completed forced penetration, attempted forced penetration, and alcohol- or drug-facilitated completed penetration. The survey also found that 51.1% of female victims of rape reported being raped by an intimate partner and 40.8% by an acquaintance.
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