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Please include the citations of the sources you obtained your information from!

Please include the citations of the sources you obtained your information from! 

This question is about your ability to research the web / literature and find the answer to some key questions about Mars - i.e. about water on Mars.

1. Is there water on Mars? How do we know? What evidences do we have for it ? (5 points)

2. Where is the water on Mars? What form is it in?  (2 points)

(Note: the emphasis on "is" is about the present Mars, not the past history of Mars)

Fill-in the blanks with "increases" or "decreases" to make the following statements valid:

A. With decreasing pressures, the melting point of "normal" ice ________.

B. With increasing pressures, the boiling point of water ___________.

C. Water cycle: Keeping the size of the reservoir same, with increasing outgoing flux the residence time of water in the reservoir ______.



Part-B. Hypothetical newly discovered phase. (8 points)

Shown below is the phase behavior of the newly discovered material named X (the exact chemistry is not yet known)

This question is about the thinking process, don't press the panic button, just think through the situation described below. Best approach is to refer to the graph image (attached phase diagram) and match the text information on the graph. This will help you figure things out very quickly. 

Note that this is a hypothetical scenario (unreal) so researching the web won't be of much help. Your own thinking is your best option!

Its behaves under various environmental conditions is fairly well understood, such that the scientists have determined the following phase relationship diagram of X (shown below), which shows the occurrence of various phases (physical states) of X at various environmental conditions - in this case, pressure and temperature.

Let us assume that you have a container filled with this strange material X in a pressurized chamber with cameras to see inside the chamber. Based on the ideas we discussed in class, study the diagram below and answer the following questions.

  1. Not knowing what pressure the bottle is at, you observe that Solid A is slowly melting at 0 oC, you deduct that the pressure in the chamber has to be _________atm. Without changing the pressure, you decide to heat this bottle. While heating you observe that the liquid turns into a solid. The type of solid phase in the bottle is ________ (solidA/solidB) andthe temperature of the chamber during solidification of the liquid is _____________ oC.
  2. You decide to randomly change the pressure and the temperature of your system, unfortunately, your indicators failed, so you cannot tell what conditions your pressure chamber is set at. However you notice that in one such attempt, you observe solidB, Liquid and bubbles of gas all together. You instantly recognize that the chamber temperature has to be _____ and the corresponding pressure is ________________ atm.
  3. In the phase diagram below, the least dense phase would be ____________________, while the phase with the highest density wouldd be _________________.

arbon takes many forms, since it combines with itself to make many complexes and also chemically interacts with other elements and compounds. Therefore while defining the carbon cycling on Earth it becomes essential to recognize the many forms of carbon in addition to recognizing their storage reservoirs. 

List 6 reservoirs for SOLID ELEMENTAL CARBON (Note: this is ONLY for Carbon, not CO2, or other chemical complexes) In other words, we are only looking pure Carbon species in solid form,

  1. ______________
  2. _______________
  3. _______________


There are no findings of preserved bones in the Titanic sinking site. This is because, in the oceans, the carbonateparticles begin to dissolve in the deeper parts. At the depth of titanic wreck, the rate of dissolution of carbonate is___[A]____ (less than/ equal/ more than) the formation of carbonate particles.  ___________


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