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Given the following information about cows grazing in a field (all terms are GJ/yr/ha):

  • Plant production (Pp) = 85 GJ/yr/ha
  • Ingestion = 65 GJ/yr/ha
  • Assimilation = 35 GJ/yr/ha
  • Respiration = 32 GJ/yr/ha
  • Egestion = 30 GJ/yr/ha
  • Production (Ph) = Assimilation - Respiration

And given these equations:

  • Assimilation = Ingestion - Egestion
  • Consumption efficiency (CE) = Ih/Pp
  • Assimilation efficiency (AE) = Ah/Ih
  • Production efficiency (PE) = Ph/Ah
  • Trophic efficiency (TE) = Ph/Pp = (CE)(AE)(PE)

What is the trophic efficiency of the cows? Express your answer as a value between 0 and 1 (not a %).

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