a. declining fixed costs.
b. diminishing returns.
c. diseconomies of scale.
Economies of scale exist as a firm increases its size in the long run because of all of the following except
a. as a larger input buyer, the firm can purchase inputs at a lower per unit cost.
b. labor and management can specialized even further in their tasks.
c. the firm can afford more sophisticated technology in production.
d. as a firm expands its production, its profit margin per unit of output increases.
A perfectly competitive market is in long-run equilibrium. At present there are 100 identical fi rms each producing 5,000 units of output. The prevailing market price is $20. Assume that each firm faces increasing marginal cost. Now suppose there is a sudden increase in demand for the industry’s product which causes the price of the good to rise to $24. Which of the following describes the effect of this increase in demand on a typical firm in the industry?
a. In the short run the typical firm increases its output and makes an above normal profit.
b. In the short run the typical firm’s output remains the same but because of the higher price its profit increases.
c. In the short run the typical firm increases its output but its total cost also rises. Hence, the effect on the firm’s profit cannot be determined without more information.
d. In the short run the typical firm increases its output but its total cost also rises, resulting in no change in profit.