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# TO VOTE OR NOT TO VOTE --that is the question-By Dewey D. Heinsma There are numerous reasons why voter turnout has steadily decreased over the last...

1. Explain why voter turnouts are generally low using the idea of rational ignorance. Does the Risker and Ordeshook voting model account for the idea of rational ignorance? Why or why not?

TO VOTE OR NOT TO VOTE --that is the question-- By Dewey D. Heinsma There are numerous reasons why voter turnout has steadily decreased over the last 40 years. One cited reason is the free time factor and the perception that voters are too busy. In contrast, John Samples presented three myths regarding declining voter turnout. Nonetheless, during the 2008 presidential election , there were 132,645,504 total voters out of an eligible voting age population of 212,702,354, which yields a 62.4% participation rate. Risker and Ordeshook (1968) presented a model for determining whether a person will vote. It is based on rational choice theory . The formula is presented below. The likelihood a rational person will vote = (pB + U) - C > 0. p = the probability that a person's vote will influence the outcome of an election. According to your text, the expected probability ( p ) of any one vote determining an election outcome is low. B = perceived benefit received from the voter's candidate winning the election or vote on a proposition U = the level of utility received from voting (e.g., "I voted today" stickers; researching an issue; allegiance to a political party) C = Explicit (financial cost) and implicit (opportunity cost) costs associated with casting a vote For a person to vote, the benefits minus the costs must be greater than zero (Risker & Ordeshook, 1968). However, these listed variables are intrinsically inexact, making it difficult to isolate why voters choose to vote. In contrast, public choice theory helps us explain the behavior of voters and why voting is the most common decision making method in the public sector

Answer: The voter turnouts are generally low because of the free time factor and the perception
that voters are too busy. Also Samples presented three myths regarding declining voter
turnouts....

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