Identify a need statement for a problem that is within one of the following areas:
1. Personalized medicine
2. Personalized learning
3. Economical access to clean water
4. Economical solar energy
5. Enhanced virtual reality
Refer to http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/ for ideas of the problem space in these five areas that are part of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) grand challenges. Please do not try to tackle the problems as they are stated on the website, these are large complex issues that may be overwhelming to apply the systems engineering process to and the intent of the paper is to apply the systems engineering process, not to solve the problem. However, feel free to leverage the information from the NAE to identify a 'reasonable' problem within the problem space domain.
You will be addressing the needs analysis phase. Start by identifying the problem that you will be addressing. Consider performing additional research or leveraging your own personal experience so that you are comfortable with the problem statement. Then develop a need statement that will require a system solution that supports the problem you identified. Use the "five whys" approach (asking 'why' up to five times) to get to the root need for the system. To this end, develop a need statement according to the following guidelines:
• The need/opportunity is stated clearly and concisely.
• The need/opportunity is well defined and bounded.
• The deficiencies in the current approach or system are identified.
• The need/opportunity is stated in the domain of the stakeholder (not the system).
• The need/opportunity is stated in the language of the stakeholder (not the designer).
• The need/opportunity statement is solution free.
• The market opportunity is addressed.
• The overall statement includes supportive data.
• The need/opportunity is 'real'.
• The need/opportunity has a well-defined paying customer.
• Stakeholders are identified or are easily identifiable from the statement.
• Meeting the identified need/opportunity will solve the problem.
Next, identify the key stakeholders and their requirements for the system. These are not formal requirements but reflect the 'voices' of the stakeholders in relation to the need/opportunity being addressed. Document this step using the following guidelines:
• Comprehensive list of stakeholders includes payee, customer, user, maintainer, trainer, etc.
• Process used to gather stakeholder requirements is described, implemented as described, and successful.
• The diverse needs of the all the stakeholders are included in the requirements.
• The stakeholder requirements are valid and accurate.
• The stakeholder requirements are stated clearly and concisely.
• The stakeholder requirements reflect the 'Voice of the Customer/Stakeholder'.
• The stakeholder requirements are solution free.
Next, develop two or three operational scenarios that describe how the system will be used in its operational state. For the operational scenarios, include a description of the physical environment, a general sequence of events, and how the 'world' will be different (hopefully better) with the use of the system. Also, create an objectives tree with one or two top objectives of the system. From these activities, develop an estimate of system operational effectiveness -- here you should define measures of effectiveness (MoEs) and measures of performance (MoPs) that specify what results a new system should achieve to meet the identified need/opportunity, together with a list of system capabilities. Recall these are the two outputs of the needs analysis phase. Now that you have all the pieces of the body of the paper, write an introduction, add the body of the paper, and then convince the customer to allow you to continue to the next step of the concept development phase by including a summary that leverages all the above, meets the requirements of the needs analysis phase as described, and provide justification for continuing the path to the development of a new system to meet the need. The paper should demonstrate understanding of the systems engineering life cycle. The body of the paper should be about 3-4 pages.
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