a. Consider an IPv4 packet going through a router. Determine which fields in the header may be

changed, before the packet is forwarded.

b. Are there any fields from the header of an IPv4 packet that are no longer maintained in the

header of an IPv6 packet? Briefly explain the reasons.

5. Consider the network topology below.

26

2

30

10

20

40

15

1

2

4

3

5

The numbers listed next to the links are link costs.

a. Determine the shortest path from node 1 to node 5 using the Distance Vector algorithm and Dijkstra’s algorithm.

b. Now suppose that the link cost for link 1-4 changed to 45. Determine again the shortest path from node 1 to 5 using the Distance Vector algorithm and Dijkstra’s algorithm.

6. Consider the network topology in the previous problem. The numbers listed next to the links are assumed to be bandwidth. Determine the widest path from node 2 to node 5 using a variant of the Djkstra’s algorithm.

7. Consider a seven-node ring network.

a. If a distance vector protocol is used, determine how long it will take for all nodes to have the same routing information if updates are done every 10 seconds.

b. If a link state protocol is issued, how long will it take before every node has the identical link-state database if flooding is done every 5 seconds. Determine how many link-state messages in total are flooded till the time when all nodes have the identical database.

8. Solve the previous problem, now for a fully connected 7-node network.

## This question was asked on May 11, 2010.

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