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# A modulation constellation is given by S = {c(k + jl) | k = 3, 1, 1, 3 and l = 3, 1, 1, 3 and j = square root of -1, where c is a constant.

A modulation constellation is given by
S = {c(k + jl) | k = 3, 1, 1, 3 and l = 3, 1, 1, 3 and j = square root of -1, where c is a constant. Determine the value of c to ensure a unit energy constellation. Sketch this constellation. Find d^2 min and label the constellation points with bits.

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Q1. A modulation constellation is given by S = {c(k + jl) | k = 3, 1, 1, 3 and l
= 3, 1, 1, 3 and j = square root of -1, where c is a constant. Determine the value
of c to ensure a unit energy...

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