Q:- Read the following passage and write its PRECIS .topic: Happiness
1 ) What makes a person happy? Generally, people want to be happy— and few people proclaim their desire to be sad—should they seek money and professional success? Many experts in fields such as sociology, psychology, and public policy are attempting to answer this seemingly simple question of what makes people happy and how communities, social organizations, and employers can facilitate happiness by implementing a few simple strategies. In this new field of happiness studies, some
intriguing answers are beginning to emerge about what makes people happy. Surprisingly, they support the longstanding hypothesis that money cannot buy happiness.
2) One of the chief obstacles to happiness is referred to as social comparison. When people compare themselves to other people, they prefer to see themselves as in some way superior. In an experiment, social scientists asked whether people would prefer earning $50,000 per year while their peers earned $25,000 per year, or whether they would prefer earning $100,000 per year while their peers averaged $250,000 per year. Even though people would earn more in the latter scenario, most chose the former as
a consequence of their desire to see themselves as more successful than others
(Layard, 2005). Thus, a simple way to increase happiness is for people to reject the urge to compare themselves to others based on their finances and to live within their means.
3) Another way to increase people's sense of personal happiness is for them to be true to themselves and keep their personal sense of integrity. While this advice may seem rather trite, people who respect and follow their authentic desires generally report being happier than people who do not. As Martin (2012) explains, "At its core, authenticity implies discovering and pursuing what we care about most deeply." He further explains the reciprocal relationship between happiness and authenticity: "As much as
authenticity contributes to the pursuit of happiness, then, happiness in turn contributes to identifying our authentic selves" (p. 55). When people limit their personal desires in order to obtain certain goals, they may achieve greater financial success but actually end up unhappier.
4) Finally, sometimes people benefit from social rules that encourage them to improve their lives, even when these laws cost more money. While few people enjoy paying taxes, some taxes make people happier 6 (although / because) they improve the overall quality of people's lives. In their study of smoking and cigarette taxes, Gruber and Mullainathan (2006) conclude that "taxes may affect the happiness of former smokers (by making it easier to resist the temptation to resume smoking) or prospective smokers (by making it easier to never start smoking in the first place)" (p. 139). This example demonstrates how a society's rules can lead to the general happiness of its populations, even through the apparently negative practice of increased taxation. Taxes also contribute to the funds
available for other social purposes, which proves further justification for their use.
5) These are merely three ways that scholars of happiness studies have determined that people can employ to enhance their personal happiness. People should avoid comparing themselves to others financially. They should seek to live as their authentic selves in their personal and professional lives. They should welcome rules, laws, and even taxes that increase the general happiness of the population. Everyone says they want to be happy, and happiness studies are helping people learn how to lead happier lives rather than to passively expect happiness to find them.