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Write at least 2 paragraphs (minimum of 5 sentences each) comparing and contrasting Chopin's The Awakening

 and her short story "A Pair of Silk Stockings," through one only of the following:

  • Edna's and one other character's attitudes toward her husband
  • Edna's and one other character's attitudes toward her children
  • Edna's and one other character's desires and preferences
  • Edna's and one other character's self-indulgence(s)
  • Edna's and one other character's sacrifices

This lesson focuses on early American Realism. Like all literary

movements, Realism in American literature could not have

existed separately from other (and often overlapping) literary

movements and trends of its time. Three other American

literary movements, with which Realism often overlaps, are

Romanticism, Naturalism, and Regionalism. While 19

th

century

Romanticists, like Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville,

sought to elevate the common individual above difficult

circumstances, and frequently

depicted human triumph over

adverse social, physical, or other challenges, 19

th

century

Realist writers, like Charles Alexander Eastman; William Dean

Howells; Ambrose Bierce; Mark Twain (real name Samuel

Clemens), Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Kate Chopin,

and others, endeavored, instead, to show daily American life,

for everyday individuals, in all of its stark, vivid, and

unembellished reality.


Very often, in works of American Realism, which includes a

wide range of literature, from Native American narratives and

sketches to pre-modernist novels by Stephen Crane, a main

character confronts challenging external forces, but does not always triumph, as do most

characters within typical Romantic works. Instead, Realism in 19

th

century American literature

often reflected the changes, conflicts, and social and economic shifts that were occurring,

sometimes very rapidly, and in entirely unprecedented ways, inside the still new, but now far

more populated and industrially burgeoning country. Writers of realism in America were, in

general, far less concerned than the American Romantics that preceded them with celebrating

the strengths and triumphs of the individual over

various social, spiritual, or other adversities

that tested the human will. (Nathaniel Hawthorne's long-suffering Hester Prynne, of

The Scarlet

Letter,

is an example of an American Romantic her

oine, while Mark Twain's more pragmatic,

action-minded Huckleberry Finn is a typical hero within American Realism). Instead, Realist

writers in America focused on describing the impacts of an increasingly complex, indifferent,

and often heartless social milieu on the lives and circumstances of characters that could be

considered very similar to everyday individuals.


As Donna Campbell explains:


In American literature, the term "realism" encompasses the period of time from the Civil

War to the turn of the century during which William Dean Howells, Rebecca Harding

Davis, Henry James, Mark Twain, and others wrote fiction devoted to accurate

representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts. As the United

States grew rapidly after the Civil War, the increasing rates of democracy and literacy,

the rapid growth in industrialism and urbanization, an expanding population base due to

immigration, and a relative rise in middle-class affluence provided a fertile literary

environment for readers interested in understanding these rapid shifts of culture.

("Realism in American Literature, 1860-1890", 2005)


Arguably, an author like Mark Twain could easily be considered not only a Realist writer, but

also a Romanticist, a Regionalist, and a Naturalist, all at once. Within Mark Twain's


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he Beginnings of American Realism

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masterpiece

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

(1884),

Huckleberry describes, using regionally-accented speech

mixed with adolescent slang (delivered with a child's keen

honesty) the

realities

, as he sees them, of American Southern

life, including its considerable racism and prejudice. Mark

Twain clearly deserves, based on that, to be called an

American Realist. Yet Hucklebe

rry's adventures frequently

also

romanticize

life on the Mississippi, and romanticize

American boyhood itself, making Mark Twain a Romanticist

writer, then, as well.


Moreover, in American Naturalism (a close cousin of

American Realism),

Naturalist

works feature human beings

within, and often against, nature. Often in American Naturalist

works, it seems as if nature itself becomes a character in the

story, usually (although not always) in opposition to human beings. Therefore, the vast

importance of the Mississippi River to the story of Huckleberry Finn makes this novel an

example of American Naturalism, too. Moreover, works with a

regional

flavor use distinctive,

often accented or inflected speech patterns, and describe, in detail, lives, situations, and

circumstances of individuals in particular, distincti

ve localities of the United States, e.g., the

American South or the American Midwest. Huck

leberry Finn is therefore a work of American

Regionalism. Many other examples of such "hybr

id" works exist within American realism. While

it is true that some works, such as the narratives of William Dean Howells, for example, are so

distinctly Realist as to be considered almost nothing else, most works of American Realism

typically fit into at least one or two of the other overlapping, related genres. Within the broad

category of American Realism, other works, of the same approximate era as

Huckleberry Finn

,

like Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" and Mark Twain's brief sketch "The

Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", have distinctly

regional

flavors. Each of these

works (and many others like them) illustrates how American Realism may also contain separate

Regionalist

elements, yet still be considered Realism.


In general, then, one might say that American Romanticism, as a literary movement, tends to

depict the potential strengths, endurance capabilities, and ultimate triumphs of the human spirit,

while American Realism describes everyday lives and circumstances with much starker

objectivity. It is likely no coincidence that some

of America's great Realists, like Mark Twain,

William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, and Ambrose Bierce, all began their

literary careers as newspaper journalists. American Naturalism as a literary movement often

shows humanity in a degraded condition, particularly

against natural forces of superior strength,

like ocean storms, midwestern tornados, or Arctic blizzards. Naturalist writers like Jack London

depict humanity within natural circumstances, often adverse ones that are beyond human

control. American Regionalist literary works spring from distinctly recognizable locales within

America, attempting to capture those locales' unique speech patterns, attitudes, and

atmospheres.


Early American Realism: Native American Narratives


Among the most vivid, stark, and often poignant recorded works of American Realism are

Native American narratives from the 19

th

century. These depict the lives and customs of various

Native American tribes, including the Suquamish; t

he Papago; the Piute; the Sioux, the Apache,

and many others, both before and after the first co

ming of white Anglo settlers to territories they


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he Beginnings of American Realism

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had inhabited for centuries. Within the broad spectrum of early American realism, 19

th

century

Native American narratives, including the works of Seattle; Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins,

Charles Alexander Eastman, Chona, and others, reflec

t details of Native American life, prior to,

and around, the first Anglo settlers' encroachments upon the Native Americans' customs,

spiritual beliefs, and tribal traditions. Such narratives illustrate how the coming of white

American settlers to the Native American terri

tories severely compromised the lives and

freedoms of Native Americans, from then until now.


One of the best-known Native American narratives is a speech by Seattle (1786-1866), who

was a chief of the Pacific Northwest's Suquamish and Dewamish tribes, at the time when whites

first came to that area. Seattle is remembered for his keen intelligence; diplomacy; oratorical

brilliance, and efforts to compromise with whites in an effort to preserve the lives of, and peace

for, his people. His famous 1855 speech, "Our People are Ebbing Away Like a Rapidly

Receding Tide" was originally recorded by a physician named Henry Smith, who, though not

entirely fluent in the tribal language in which it was delivered, translated it into English. It is

believed, however, that Smith likely altered parts of the speech, along the way, in order to make

it better conform to that which he believed white settlers of that time wished to hear. Thus the

probably inauthentic, yet now well-known phrases supposedly contained in Seattle's speech,

like "happy hunting ground" were not likely the words that the Chief actually spoke during the

speech itself.


Still, although not entirely authentic in the way it has been reproduced for history, the speech of

Seattle nevertheless provides us now with at least a partial, if not entirely clear view of the heart

and mind of Seattle, and the Suquamish of the time, for whom he spoke that day.


Another Native American realist author, Sarah Winnemucca

Hopkins (1844-1891) was a member of the Piute tribe, which

occupied the territory of what is now the state of Nevada. In

Life

Among the Piutes

, Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins describes the

first coming of the white man to the lands of the Piutes when she

was a child, and how her grandfather, chief of the Piute nation,

initially welcomed them. Based on ancient Piute legend,

Hopkins's grandfather believed the Anglos who came were his

long-lost brothers. The white explorers, however, rejected the

Piute Chief's offers of friendship and good will, leaving him and

his people hurt and puzzled. Soon the Piutes, with good reason,

came to fear the whites.


As Victoria Ford states, in

Women's Biographies: Sarah

Winemucca

,


Life Among the Piutes is Sarah Winnemucca's powerful legacy to both cultures, the

Native Americans and the whites. It appeared in 1883, the first book ever published that

was written by a Native American woman. Following the oral tradition of her people, she

reaches out to readers with a deeply personal appeal for understanding, recording a

portion of the history of the far west from the Native American perspective. The book

was a monumental achievement, recording the Native American viewpoint of whites

settling the west, told in a language that was not her own and written and published by a

woman during the time when even white women were not allowed to vote, second only

to the work she performed every day to promote understanding across cultures.

Posthumously, she was awarded the Nevada Writers Hall of Fame Award for her book


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he Beginnings of American Realism

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from the Friends of the Library, University of Nevada, Reno. In 1994 an elementary

school in Washoe County School District was named in her honor, Sarah Winnemucca

Elementary.


Native American author Charles Alexander Ea

stman (1858-1939) was born in Minnesota to a

Sioux father and a half-blooded mother. Named Hakadah at birth, his name was later changed

to Ohiyesa, and then, when he was 16, Amer

icanized by his grandfather, who had by then

converted to Christianity. A brilliant student and a physician by profession with an M.D. from

Boston University Medical School, Eastman's life exemplifies the rich complexities of a Native

American with one foot truly in Native American culture, but the other in white American culture,

and his efforts to come to terms with the vast differences between these cultures. Eastman's

book

Indian Boyhood

(1902) describes, in ways that at times parallel Mark Twain's

Tom Sawyer

and

Huckleberry Finn

, in idealization of boyhood, an idyllic childhood spent with friends, close to

nature, always replete with hunting adventures.


Chona (c. 1841-1935), a member of the Papago tribe that inhabited the southern Arizona desert

lands was the daughter of a Papago chief, and a child of six years old when Anglo explorers first

came to her area. In her

The Autobiography of Chona, a Papago Woman

, Chona recalls, at the

age of ninety, an event that occurred during her childhood when her father and uncle killed a

member of the enemy Apache tribe. Her accounts of the elaborate rituals and ceremonies that

took place after the killing of the Apache offer insights into the centuries-old rituals, traditions,

and beliefs of the Papago.


Early American Realism: Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, and


Ambrose Bierce


Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910) is

best known for his American classic novels of boys' life

on the Mississippi River,

Tom Sawyer

(1876) and

Huckleberry Finn

(1884). Less well known, however,

although equally worth reading, are Mark Twain's brief

satirical sketches, among them "The Notorious Jumping

Frog of Calaveras County" (1985). In this sketch, Mark

Twain uses humorous ironies and regional speech

patterns to tell a story within a story, about the "notorious"

gambling adventures of Jim Smiley, a man who would

make a bet on anything at all, at any time he could. The

story of Jim Smiley and his jumping frog is told to the

narrator by a man named Simon Wheeler inside a mining

camp tavern. A story within a story is sometimes referred

to as a "frame narrative", since it is "framed", at the

beginning and the end, by both an introduction and a

conclusion in the words of someone uninvolved in the

story itself. Typical of Mark Twain's humorous style are

his liberal uses of exaggeration throughout the story, and

his uses of irony and surprise. A bit of political humor is

also present, for example, in the names of Ji

m Smiley's dog, "Andrew Jackson", and Smiley's

prized jumping frog, "Daniel Webster".


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he Beginnings of American Realism

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Another important American realist, William Dean Howells (1837-1920) was Mark Twain's

contemporary and friend, although the two wrote in different ways, from very different

perspectives, and on vastly different subjects. Unlike Mark Twain, however, who used his fame,

popularity, and public speaking ability to launch a long and lucrative career on the international

lecture circuit, Howells, a more retiring individual, was a respected literary critic and longtime

editor of the

Atlantic Monthly

. Within those venues, Howells's cogent, carefully articulated

opinions about the key importance of realism, not only as an American literary movement, but

as a much-preferred way of writing, influenced his fellow writers, new generations of aspiring

writers, and the reading public itself. Howells's writing style is among the clearest and most

unadorned in all of American literature. For example, his short sketch describing his good friend

Mark Twain, "My Mark Twain," is so clearly and vi

vidly written, and so interestingly detailed, that

it seems almost to create a verbal picture of sorts, not only of the physical Mark Twain, but also

of his manner and his personality. The same might also be said, but in a different sense, of

Howell's short piece "The Drowned Girl" from his

Suburban Sketches

.


Yet another American Realist author of the time was Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914), a fascinating

contemporary of both Mark Twain and William Dean Howells. Ambrose Bierce's life was varied,

adventurous, colorful, and mostly sad. After a four-year stint in London with his new wife Mollie,

where two of his three children were born, Ambrose Bierce returned with his family to San

Francisco, where he gained national fame as an acerbic but influential political journalist, as well

as a writer of popular short stories and novel

s. Ambrose Bierce earned his nickname, "Bitter

Bierce", based on his darkly sardonic view of life. Though not best known for his humorist

perspectives, Bierce's darkly ironic outlook is nevertheless cleverly expressed, within his

The

Devil's Dictionary

, published in 191l. Bierce's most enduring and widely-read fictional work,

however, is his short story "An Occurrence at Ow

l Creek Bridge", a nearly reportorial account of

a ceremonial military hanging of a Confederate civilian during the Civil War. In the true spirit of

American realism, Bierce's descriptions of the physical sensations and desperate, tortured

emotions experienced by the doomed Southern saboteur Peyton Farquhar, are stark and vivid

to the point of near-brutal intensity. Like his contemporary Mark Twain, Ambrose Bierce was

fond of surprise endings, and readers of "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" will be surprised

by its resolution.


Ambrose Bierce's bitter outlook on life likely sprang from a combination of his impoverished and

difficult childhood, the traumatic events of his Ci

vil War service as a young man, which left him

with a serious head wound that retired him from the war, a later stormy marriage and divorce,

and the early deaths of his two beloved sons, Day and Leigh, the older as a teenager in a duel,

and the younger, some years later, from alc

oholism-related pneumonia. Ambrose Bierce's

mysterious disappearance at age 71 into Mexico, where he is presumed, although not

definitively known, to have perished, continues to

this day to be a subject of lively critical

speculation. The novel

The Old Gringo

, by Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes, and the 1989 film

of the same name based on it and starring Jane Fonda and Gregory Peck, both focus on

possibilities of what might have become of Bierce after he entered war-torn Mexico in late 1913.


Styles, Tones, Settings, and Themes in Early American Realism


From Native American narratives to pre-modernist novels, American literary realism is

characteristically unembellished and deals with stark realities of everyday life, for typical

Americans of diverse groups, backgrounds, and ethnicities. American Realism dealt with the

problems and conflicts of its time, in a straightforward, often journalistic way. Realism is a

starker mode of literary expression than is Ro

manticism, but less pessimistic, overall than


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he Beginnings of American Realism

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Naturalism. Tone, like style, is unadorned. Settings for American Realism are varied, from New

England to the Deep South to the Midwest to the far west corners of the nation. For that

reason, Regionalism, which features the local color of authors like Mark Twain and Stephen

Crane, is sometimes a feature of early American

Realist works. As a literary movement, realism

perhaps offers the most authentic representation of everyday life available within all of American

literature.

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congue velo. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio