Part 1:

When post World War Modernism and its radical break from the past took hold, the force of women's innovations in artistic work, new forms of expression, and radical lifestyles showed the "new women" had truly emerged. By 1915, though women still did not have the right to vote in America, Mina Loy's radical "Feminist Manifesto" shocked the literary world, Virginia Woolf set out to "re-form" the novel, and Loie Fuller and Isadora Duncan danced freely on stages around the world. Analyze the ways and provide a specific example of how women's creativity was additionally marginalized by race, ethnicity, and/or class.

Part 2:

Zora Neale Hurston, born in Notasulga, Alabama and also of Eatonville, Florida, is greatly known across the world as she not only written novels but she's also has more than fifty short stories and essays published and performed in plays written by herself. Zora is best known for her novel entitled "Their Eyes Were Watching God," which was published back in 1937 according to Hurston's biography website. Sixty-eight years later the novel was transformed into film and hit the big screen. This project was produced by the legendary Oprah Winfrey.

Zora's creativity landed her recognition as a figurine of the Harlem Renaissance. For an African American woman of her time, Zora was quite well-educated. However, financial burdens were recurring experiences for Hurston and was prime reason why many places were "home" to the literary genius. Still in all, regardless of what life threw her way, Zora remained focused on her passion for both acting and writing. During her era, Zora entered the entertainment industry and took it by storm; she's was a breath of fresh air and like no other individual that the industry had seen. Yet, although her creativeness was one of a kind, many projects were neglected and many plays were shut down due to her not having the "financial support" and/or supporters to keep the projects up and running. According to sources, "the largest royalty she ever earned from any of her books was $943.75," indicating that Hurston never received the financial rewards she deserved.  And if financial crisis weren't enough, later in her career, Hurston was accused of child molestation. Though evidence was provided and proved that she'd been wrongfully accused, such allegations put a hinderance on her overall career as tabloids got ahold of the story and wasted very little time discrediting the literary authoress, not only shaming her life but destroying any possibility of her ever being successful in the entertainment industry.  

As a child, my mother always preached to my siblings and myself that we ought not to fight fire with fire; it only adds to it's fuel. There are no reported cases (that I've come across) where "man" stepped in and tried to shut Zora and her ideas down, only except for when her projects were perceived as not worthy of publishing or reaching the eye of the public. Still, somehow, Zora managed to proceed with the birth of her creations. I can only imagine that this fueled anger in those that didn't believe or support Zora. So with no other way to stop her shine, they fought back with her very own talent. A story was written, shaming her name, shaming her character, and made her to be a monster. A plot created so devastating to the point that she wouldn't be able to make a comeback. When money didn't stop her from pursuing her dreams, and when rejection only gave her an extra push, they hit where they knew would put a halt in her step; to take away her name, the very thing she'd been trying to create for herself since the very beginning. Sources prove that Zora didn't stop writing after this very incident but it did leave a mighty scar upon her and her work that left her unfavorable in the not only in the African American communities but also within the rural of performing arts. This very incident probably would have been overlooked and probably never made it before a judge had it been a European citizen from the upper class. But because Zora was of African American culture, a woman of the lower class, and presumed to be stirring up trouble with her unique creative pieces of work, she arrested, which put her in a new pool of society known as "criminal" and because of the proceedings she and her work suffered greatly.

(Interesting Fact: It wasn't until years later after Zora Hurston's death, that her work received incredible recognition from people all over the world and is often one of many chosen literal pieces for secondary educational literature courses.)

Reference: Zora Neale Hurston Digital Archive. (

Part 3:.

 Hi Class,

Within the social order of a man's life he was able to venture outside the home and indulge in other activities of his choosing. Women were not afforded this type of life. She was forced to find her value in the home through cleaning, caring for the family and cooking.  Their idle time was not used to pursue their dreams. Art, education and professional advances remained separate and unequal to the men. Women were completely denied access to the political rights men were entitled. This would include the right to vote.  It is why the Declaration of Sentiments was relevant and sought to be the voice for many women. In Britain women could not complete an education beyond whatever elementary education was at that time.  If a a man passed his wife could not attain his property or money.  They were not considered to be human.  After reading the Feminist Manifesto I wonder if women of races, social classes and ethnicity can find a sentence that is relevant today, I know I can.



Wolf, Abby (2005, February 19) Masterpiece Theater/Wives and Daughters Retrieved from https:/ text.html

Part 4:

Women were necessary when men went off to war and upon the men's return were expected to go back being "just housewives". Freda Josephine Mc Donald born June 1906 was an exception for a black girl; she was a French dancer who loved jazz and pop music and was known in various circles as the "black pearl". I can imagine the struggles a black woman in the 1920s that was fluent in English and French.

            This young lady born in St. Louis Missouri was not accepted in her own country. She struggled to get recognized as a talented musician and actor in America. Shin, 2009 suggests the struggles this woman experienced before being able to perform to a mixed audience was noted, yet everything was done to encourage her to perform to segregated audiences only, however she always refused (p, 65).

In 1937 Freda then changed her name to Josephine Baker and renounced her U.S. citizenship to become a citizen of France.  

In an era when women were not heard; disallowed to vote and black women were only known for baring children and providing "wet nurse" services; Josephine was unique, a black woman performing dance and jazz singing was unheard of, but Josephine made her mark in spite of the challenges. She was the daughter of two performers and was known to join them onstage from an early age. She became the first black woman to star in a major motion picture, first woman to become a world-famous entertainer. She was well known for her involvement in the French Resistance during World War 11. Josephine was opening the way for other musical black women.

            Taylor, 2012 suggests that at that time the government's institutionalization of traditional oppression of females has lone prevented women from having any voice or power in their own country (p, 392). Josephine Baker was not waiting around; she took her talents to another country and was the better for it. During the French Resistance she served as a sky using her frequent travelling to transport messages and used her music sheets to host invisible ink with secret messages important to the Resistance.

Josephine was a woman who shocked the music world, she performed scantily dressed, was adamant as to whom she served and where she served, she tried making a comeback in the US but was still unsuccessful. Grace Kelly and Jackie Kennedy Onassis supported her when her money dried up they attended her concerts, supported her financially and played a part in her funeral.

            In 1975 Josephine Baker died from pneumonia, a well lived life, with tremendous support from her fellow Frenchmen. This woman lived through and experienced hardship to share her art, she was afforded little assistance but persevered, she was able to share her art even if she had to denounce her country to do so.





Gloria Shin, Book Review: Bennetta Jules-Rosette, Josephine Baker in Art and Life: The Icon and the Image, in Spectator, nr., 2009 pp. 65 - 66

Taylor, C. (2012). The struggle for women tights, Depaul Journal for Social Justice5(2), 392-401.

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