Solved by Expert Tutors
Style Manual for Political Science Revised August 2006 APSA Committee on Publications apsa the american political science association APSA Style...
Solved by Expert Tutors

Directions:Use Pollock Chapters 2 and 4 as a reference guide to complete this assignment. (Example HERE)

Write a short research note about two variables in which you are interested. (You should continue to use the variables from paper #1.)  The note will consist of an introduction, a short literature review (cite at least two academic articles from, hypothesis to be tested, a short discussion of the variables’ summary statistics (central tendency and dispersion), statistical procedures you will run to compare the variables, tables and appropriate graphs of the results, a discussion and implication of the results. 

Example relationships could include race and party identification, income/education and ideology, crime in a state and levels of poverty, etc. 

Reference the following link for a discussion on how to successfully structure your paper:

Weingast, Barry R. 1995.  "Structuring Your Papers." (Links to an external site.)]

Paper format should conform to the American Political Science Association’s “Style Guidelines”. (Links to an external site.)

Format and description

I. Introduction

Answers the question: Why am I studying these variables? Why is this important? What do I expect to find? State why you think this relationship is important. Is the relationship positive, negative, a correlation, or a spurious relationship?  Why is it one and not the others?

Lit Review:

Answers the question: how have others studied this topic in the past?

Using JSTOR find two related research articles and cite the appropriate in your paper.  Eg, what type of research design was used?  What was the data? What were the authors' findings/conclusions?  How does it relate to the variables you are studying?

Data and Methods:

Answers the question: What data set am I using?  How many people answered the relevant questions?  What are the variables and how did they ask/measure the phenomena? What are the measures of central tendency/dispersion?


Answers the question: what statistical procedure are you using? Crosstabs/comparison of means?  Why?  Explain the tables and graphs you produce using SPSS.  Does it prove or disprove your hypothesis?


Answers the question: What are the implications of the findings?  Why should we care?

apsa the american political science associa tion Style Manual for Political Science Revised August 2006 APSA Committee on Publications
Background image of page 01
APSA Style Manual for Political Science Revised August 2006 American Political Science Association Committee on Publications
Background image of page 02
Show entire document
STRUCTURING YOUR PAPERS (CALTECH RULES) * Barry R. Weingast Stanford University April 1995 All papers that you write for the next five years, and possibly the rest of your life, should have the following basic format. While different contexts require alterations, you should deviate only with good reason. Alter or leave out some component only when you're convinced it is necessary. Like all rules of thumb, these guidelines have useful purposes, but they should not be treated as iron laws. The format that follows is appropriate for a paper that applies a theoretical idea to a particular question. Other types of papers (e.g., pure theory) require some adjustments. Part of the point of these rules is to get you to think about the design and structure of your papers wholly apart from the arguments in them. With rare exceptions, papers do not write themselves. Transforming a good idea into a good paper is a difficult process. A clear understanding of what each part of your paper must accomplish is essential to this process. The philosophy underlying this format is that papers are often their own worst enemies, that their structure and content impede rather aid the reader's understanding of the main point. This is especially true in circumstances where most readers do not read the paper carefully. 1 The first rule of all papers is therefore: Papers must focus on one main point. Do not attempt to enrich your paper with many asides. Comments meant to suggest implications not essential for the development of the central point should be avoided. It is far better to have a narrow, focused, and useful paper than a rich one that is ignored. * I call these Caltech rules because I learned them while a graduate student at Caltech from the remarkable group of young professors: Bob Bates, John Ferejohn, Mo Fiorina, and especially Roger Noll. As they learned to articulate principles of good writing, they taught them to their graduate students. These notes represent a modest continuation of that tradition. 1 Put another way: Thinking of your reader as a graduate student who will pore over and over your paper is a mistake. In order for your paper to get onto reading lists in courses, it must first be read by your professional peers who rarely read a paper in this manner, especially if it is from someone they have never heard. And referees for professional journals never read papers in this manner.
Background image of page 1
The Structure Part I: Introduction. From a design point of view, the introduction to a paper is one of its most important parts. A reader that is confused by the introduction or who fails to see that the paper deals with an important or interesting issue is not likely to read the rest. And, if she does read on, she is less likely to get the main point. As a consequence, every introduction must consist of four parts: (a) State the problem to be solved. (b) Discuss the state of the art (i.e., previous work) and explain why, despite/because of this literature, there remains: (i) confusion; (ii) misunderstanding; (iii) errors; or (iv) some unresolved problem. Alternatively, present an empirical puzzle that the existing literature fails to explain. (c) State the essence of your contribution, that is, your solution to the problem or puzzle. Give the reader a sense of how you solve the problem; provide some confidence that if she reads the rest of your paper, she has a chance of learning something. (d) The last paragraph of your introduction should always be a "road map" paragraph; for example: "This paper proceeds as follows. In section 1 . .." Part II. Theory. Express the basic logic of your approach. This need not have any reference to the problem that motivated your study. Often short examples or illustrations are useful. Applied papers should not develop a theory for its own sake. Rather, the purpose is to develop just as much as needed to solve the problem posed in the introduction (the actual solving takes place in the next section). As a consequence, this section should not contain all the implications of the approach you've derived; provide only those needed to make the main point of the paper. Even if your theory is very rich, be sparse with your asides and additional implications. Part III. Application. This is the heart of an applied paper. Here you must show why your theory is relevant to the problem and demonstrate its analytical leverage. Put simply, this section resolves the problem stated in the introduction. Part IV. Conclusions. State the main point of the paper. This can be in question/answer form or simply a short discussion of the problem and your answer. "In this paper, we have shown that. .." Summarize for the reader what your main insight is and why you were able to do something that no one else has. You may also wish to point out some of the limitations of your argument or some of its additional implications.
Background image of page 2
0 N. Alexander Aguado Political Science 301: Research Methods Institutional Structures and Policy Responses in Cities During a Time of Financial Disparity Abstract: This study examines the relationship between various institutional arrangements in U.S. cities and budgetary cuts that were implemented after the 2008 financial crisis. This analysis focuses on mayor-council cities, strong mayors, city managers, and citizen input to determine the effects that these institutional arrangements had on municipal government’s cutback strategies. Using data from the International City/County Management Association, this study finds that mayor-council cities implemented less austerity measures and were less likely to implement any of the cutback strategies with only one exception – across-the-board cuts. This study confirms that cities with city managers were able to implement more cuts, as they are relatively insulated from electoral pressures. Finally, citizen input allows cities the ability to implement more cutback measures.
Background image of page 01
1 The institutional structures of American cities provide a rich source of data for those interested in finding the effect of institutional design on policy-making. Institutional structures, like form of government, are important factors that have far reaching consequences and have been shown to affect who votes (Wood 2002), the power of elected officials (Svara 1987), and can also determine who gets what in government (Klase 2006). A city’s form of government can also provide powerful inducements that encourage policy innovation (Nelson and Svara 2012) as well as stifle and limit policy makers’ options. This paper contributes to the literature that examines how local government structures can affect policy implementation. Past research has documented the extent to which form of government can influence municipal politics (Svara 1987, Zhang and Feiock 2009). The mayor-council form, sometimes referred to as non-reformed governments, is generally considered to be political in nature while council-manager cities, which feature reformed institutions, are generally considered to be guided by ideals of professionalism, efficiency, and effectiveness. Non-reformed institutions will tend to have “district elections and mayoral control of administration” which offers “a more politicized system that is more vulnerable to demands” (Sharp 2005, 17). The full-time nature of elective office requires incumbents to be very sensitive to electoral pressures in mayor-council governments (McNitt 2010). By emphasizing “professionalism and expertise more than political linkages between government and citizenry,” council-manager governments’ “policy decisions are insulated from public scrutiny and from patronage demands” (Sharp 1990, 275). The “reformed versus non-reformed city” distinction also lends itself to analyses that can pigeonhole strong mayors as pawns of their constituents, delegates with
Background image of page 02
Show entire document
Sign up to view the entire interaction

Step-by-step answer

m risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. F

ur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellent

Socio-economical status and employment.docx
, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapi et, facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie conse

Subscribe to view the full answer

Why Join Course Hero?

Course Hero has all the homework and study help you need to succeed! We’ve got course-specific notes, study guides, and practice tests along with expert tutors.

  • -

    Study Documents

    Find the best study resources around, tagged to your specific courses. Share your own to gain free Course Hero access.

    Browse Documents
  • -

    Question & Answers

    Get one-on-one homework help from our expert tutors—available online 24/7. Ask your own questions or browse existing Q&A threads. Satisfaction guaranteed!

    Ask a Question
Let our 24/7 English tutors help you get unstuck! Ask your first question.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes