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src="/qa/attachment/8932032/" alt="Screen Shot 2019-07-31 at 7.00.58 PM.png" />Could you share your thoughts on this. Is there anything here appealing to you?

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A Model of the Rhetorical Problem
From these protocols, we pulled together a composite picture or model of
the rhetorical problem itself. This composite is shown in Figure 1, with
examples drawn from our writers' protocols. It is based on what the group of
writers did and shows the basic elements of a writing problem which a given
writer roald actively consider in the process of composing, if he or she chose
to. For example, the writer in the following excerpt is actively creating an
image of himself or his presses, an image of what effect he might have on his
reader, and an initial representation of a meaning or idea he might choose to
develop, as the words in brackets indicate.
Ah, in fact, that might be a useful thing to focus on, how a professor
differs from . . . how a teacher differs from a professor, [meaning], and I
see myself as a teacher, [wriowa]. that might help them, my audience, to
reconsider their notion of what an English teacher does. (effect on audi-
ence]
Taken as a whole, the rhetorical problem breaks into two major units. The
The Rhetorical Problem
Elements of the Problem
Examples
THE RHETORICAL SITUATION
Exigency or Assignment
"Write for Seventeen magazine; this
is impossible."
Audience
"Someone like myself, but adjusted
for twenty years."
THE WRITER'S OWN GOALS
involving the
Reader
"I'll change their notion of English
teachers . . .
Persona or Self
"I'll look like an idiot if I say . . . "
Meaning
"So if I compare those two anti-
cudes . .
Text
"First we'll want an introduction."
Figure I. Elements of the rhetorical problem writers represent to themselves in composing

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Studying Cognitive Processes
The research question we posed for ourselves was this: if discovery is an act
of making meaning, not finding it, in response to a self-defined problem or goal,
how does this problem get defined? Specifically, we wanted to answer three
questions:
1. What aspects of a rhetorical problem do people actively represent to
themselves? For example, do writers actually spend much time
analyzing their audience, and if so, how do they do it?
2. If writers do spend time developing a full representation of their
problem, does it help them generate new ideas?
3. And finally, are there any significant differences in the way good and
poor writers go about this task?
In order to describe the problem definition process itself, we collected
thinking-aloud protocols from both expert and novice writers. A protocol is a
derailed record of a subject's behavior. Our protocols include a transcript of a
tape recording made by writers instructed to verbalize their thinking process
as they write, as well as all written material the writer produced. A typical
protocol from a one-hour session will include four to five pages of notes and
writing and 15 pages of typed transcript. The novice writers were college
students who had gone to the Communication Skills Center for general writ-
ing problems such as coherence and organization. The expert writers were
teachers of writing and rhetoric who had received year-long NEH fellowships
to study writing. Each writer was given the following problem: "write about
your job for the readers of Serenfees magazine, 13-14 year-old girls," and was
24
College Comparition and Communication
asked to compose out loud into a tape recorder as he or she worked. They
were told to verbalize everything that went through their minds, including
stray thoughts and crazy ideas, but not to try to analyze their thought proc-
ess, just to express it.

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