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04_ogre_cho4. qad 1/3/11 10:24 PM Page 138 138 Chapter Four f) typographical error typo g) aerobics, marathon - aerobathon h) act - deactivate i) curve, ball curve ball ) perambulator pram k) (the) comb > comb (your hair) 1) beef, buffalo beefalo m) random access memory -RAM n) megabyte -meg o) Europe, Asia - Eurasia P) applications (for a computer) - apps q) They have finished . They've finished r) Goods and Services Tax - GST 21. Here are five instances where a new word is needed. Create a word for each of these definitions in the manner indicated. Fill in the blanks with your new words. ) Use an acronym . . . for your uncle's second oldest brother. "We visited my at Christmas." b) Use onomatopoeia. . . for the sound of a coffee percolator at work. "I can't concentrate because my perc is _Ing." ") Use conversion .. . for wrapping something breakable in bubbles. "You'd better_ that ornament or else it might break." d) Use a compound .. . for the annoying string of cheese stretching from a slice of hot pizza to one's mouth. "As the_ hung precariously from my lips, our eyes met!" e) Use backformation .. . for the action of backformation. "We had to words in linguistics class today." 22. Create a word for each of the following situations. ) Use a product name . . . for the act of cleaning a mirror with Windex. ed the the mirror to get rid of the fingerprints." b) Use a proper name .. . for the act of breaking dishes, which Jonathan does regularly. "He's going to_ all of my best dishes." c) Use clipping . .. for a course in ovinology (the study of sheep). "Have you done your_ assignment yet?" d) Use derivation... for being able to be contacted. "The counsellor is not very_ e) Use a blend . . . for a hot drink made with chocolate and ginseng. "I'll have a and two peanut butter cookies, please." To read more on inflection and morphophonemics, go to the Companion Website at www.pearsoncanada.ca/ogrady, Chapter 4.
04_ogre_cho4. qxd 1/3/11 6:45 PM Page 137 Morphology: the analysis of word structure 137 18. The following words from Chamorro, spoken in Guam and the Mariana Islands, all Involve derivation. (Data are presented in Chamorro orthography.) I. Root Derived word a) adda 'mimic adda 'mimicker' b) kanno eat' kakanno 'eater' c) tuge "write' tutuge "writer' II. Root Derived word d) atan "look at' atanon "nice to look at' e) sangan 'tell sanganon "tellable" guaiya "love" guaiyayon "lovable g) tulalka exchange' tulaikayon 'exchangeable' h) chalek 'laugh' chalekon laughable' i) ngangas chew ngangason chewable' Ill. Root Derived word nalang 'hungry' nalalang "very hungry' k) dankolo "big' dankololo "very big" D metgot 'strong metgogot "very strong' m) bunita 'pretty bunitata very pretty' Like inflection, derivation can be expressed in a variety of ways-including by affixation of various types (prefixation, suffixation, infixation) and by reduplication. I) What morphological process is manifested in ? in II? in III? D) Formulate a general statement as to how the derived words in I are formed. Do the same for II and III. Ill) One of these derivational processes consists of affixation involving allomorphs. What is the distribution of the allomorphs? 19. The following words can be either nouns or verbs. a) record f) outline k) report b) journey g) convict D assault c) exchange h) Imprint m) answer d) remark i) reply n) import e) surprise j) retreat o) cripple ) For each word, determine whether stress placement can be used to make the distinction between noun and verb 1) Think of two more English examples illustrating the process of stress shift to mark a category distinction. 20. Indicate the morphological phenomenon illustrated by the items in column 2. Column 1 Column 2 a) automation - automate b) humid humidifier ") Information, entertainment Infotainment d) love, seat . loveseat e) progress * progress
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