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the author's main argument in this passage?


Ferrer's liscuela Modema, which he established in Barcelona in 1991, was actually based on
French models. Louise Michel, who was "on the front ranks whenever the people of Paris
rebelled against some wrong, " in the nineteenth century, established a school at Montrnartre as an alternative to the "soul-destroying educational institutions" of the bourgeois which she believed
were the originator of all social evils. lg] Following Michel's model, Paul Robin established his Modern School at |Cempuis in 1989
refusing the conventional belief that "the child must suffer for the sins of the fathers, that it must
continue in poverty, and filth, that it must grow up a drunkard or criminal, just because its
parents left no other legacyflfl] Robin "took his children from the street, the hovels, the orphan
and founding asylums, the reformatories, from all those gray and hideous places where a
benevolent society hides its victims in order to pacify its guilty conscience."_li1 Although
Cempuis was closed by the French government on charges of coeducation, which at the time was
prohibited under law, other similar educational attempts were undertaken in France by Madeleine
Vernet and Sebastian Faure. Faure developed in the children a love of study by awakening "the
child's interest in his surroundings by mak(ing) him or her realize the importance of observation,
investigation, and reflection" and by teaching the student to never accept anything on blind faith. l5] Ferrer followed these precedents in developing his child-centered theories of education. Ferrer outlined the principles upon which a Modern School should be based. He proclaimed at
the opening of his Escuela Moderna in 191] 1: "I am not a speaker, not a propagandist, not a
fighter. I am a teacher; I love children above everything. Ithink I understand them. I want my
contribution to the cause of liberty to be a young generafion ready to meet a new era."l§] Ferrer
knew that "the real educator is he who can best appeal to the child‘s
own energies." L1 Before his execution in 1999, Ferrer claimed he was wrongly
accused of taking part in at least two conspiracies to overthrow the
Spanish government. In 1996, he was charged with being implicated
in a plan to kill King Alfonso and in 1909 of leading an anti-military
uprising in which peace and order prevailed while the people had
control of the city. fl From his prison cell, Ferrer wrote on October
4, 1999 that he was being accused of being the leader of the world's
anarchists because of his visits to London and Paris and that "with
such infamous lies they are trying to kill me."l9] The indictment
against him did not even accuse him of participation in the uprising Frflnpigpfi Fp'n‘pn n mun

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