Question
Answered step-by-step

Question 1(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points) Read the following...

Question 1(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a letter written by a father to his son.


DEAR BOY,                                                                                              Bath, October the 4th, O. S. 1746.


Though I employ so much of my time in writing to you, I confess I have often my doubts whether it is to any purpose. I know how unwelcome advice generally is; I know that those who want it most like it and follow it least; and I know, too, that the advice of parents, more particularly, is ascribed to the moroseness, the imperiousness, or the garrulity of old age. But then, on the other hand, I flatter myself, that as your own reason (though too young as yet to suggest much to you of itself) is, however, strong enough to enable you both to judge of and receive plain truths: I flatter myself, I say, that your own reason, young as it is, must tell you, that I can have no interest but yours in the advice I give you; and that, consequently, you will at least weigh and consider it well: in which case, some of it will, I hope, have its effect. Do not think that I mean to dictate as a parent; I only mean to advise as a friend, and an indulgent one too: and do not apprehend that I mean to check your pleasures; of which, on the contrary, I only desire to be the guide, not the censor. Let my experience supply your want of it, and clear your way in the progress of your youth of those thorns and briers which scratched and disfigured me in the course of mine. I do not, therefore, so much as hint to you how absolutely dependent you are upon me; that you neither have nor can have a shilling in the world but from me; and that, as I have no womanish weakness for your person, your merit must and will be the only measure of my kindness. I say, I do not hint these things to you, because I am convinced that you will act right upon more noble and generous principles; I mean, for the sake of doing right, and out of affection and gratitude to me.


I have so often recommended to you attention and application to whatever you learn, that I do not mention them now as duties, but I point them out to you as conducive, nay, absolutely necessary, to your pleasures; for can there be a greater pleasure than to be universally allowed to excel those of one's own age and manner of life? And, consequently, can there be anything more mortifying than to be excelled by them? In this latter case, your shame and regret must be greater than anybody's, because everybody knows the uncommon care which has been taken of your education, and the opportunities you have had of knowing more than others of your age. I do not confine the application which I recommend, singly to the view and emulation of excelling others (though that is a very sensible pleasure and a very I warrantable pride); but I mean likewise to excel in the thing itself: for, in my mind, one may as well not know a thing at all, as know it but imperfectly. To know a little of anything, gives neither satisfaction nor credit, but often brings disgrace or ridicule.




In the second sentence of the first paragraph (reproduced below), the writer is considering deleting the bolded portion, adjusting the punctuation as necessary.


I know how unwelcome advice generally is; I know that those who want it most like it and follow it least; and I know, too, that the advice of parents, more particularly, is ascribed to the moroseness, the imperiousness, or the garrulity of old age.


Should the writer keep or delete the bolded text? 

 Keep it, because it establishes the premise for the writer's argument which is developed throughout the letter.

 Delete it, because it contradicts the accusatory tone the writer continues throughout the rest of the letter.

 Delete it, because it negates the premise for the writer's argument which is developed throughout the letter.

 Keep it, because it confirms the writer's claims that parents should not give advice to unwilling recipients.

 Keep it, because it previews the self-deprecating tone the writer continues throughout the rest of the letter.


Question 2(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following excerpt carefully before you choose your answer.


This excerpt is taken from a letter written by a father to his son.


"Though I employ so much of my time in writing to you, I confess I have often my doubts whether it is to any purpose. I know how unwelcome advice generally is ; I know that those who want it most like it and follow it least; and I know, too, that the advice of parents, more particularly, is ascribed to the moroseness, the imperiousness, or the garrulity of old age. But then, on the other hand, I flatter myself, that as your own reason (though too young as yet to suggest much to you of itself) is, however, strong enough to enable you both to judge of and receive plain truths: I flatter myself, I say, that your own reason, young as it is, must tell you, that I can have no interest but yours in the advice I give you; and that, consequently, you will at least weigh and consider it well: in which case, some of it will, I hope, have its effect."


In context the phrase "the garrulity of old age" is best interpreted as the

 wisdom of the elderly

 fear of early aging

 aches and pains of infirmity

 serenity during the autumn of life

 chattering of the aged


Question 3(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a book that chronicles a man's exploration of Alaska.


"After this fine last lesson I managed to make a small fire out of wet twigs, got a cup of tea, stripped off my dripping clothing, wrapped myself in a blanket and lay brooding on the gains of the day and plans for the morrow, glad, rich, and almost comfortable."


This detailed sentence, used to describe the writer's activities, reveals the writer's

 detailed plans

 utter exhaustion

 mournful outlook

 calculating ways

 optimistic attitude


Question 4(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a speech given by President Ronald Reagan to the people of West Berlin in 1987.


"In West Germany and here in Berlin, there took place an economic miracle, the Wirtschaftswunder. Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty—that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy economic freedom. The German leaders reduced tariffs, expanded free trade, lowered taxes. From 1950 to 1960 alone, the standard of living in West Germany and Berlin doubled."


Which rhetorical strategy does the speaker adopt in this paragraph?

 He uses personification to describe the development of American policy.

 He goes on the offensive by berating the economic policies of his opponents.

 He uses metaphors and juxtaposition to acknowledge the growth of the economy. 

 He uses an analogy to show the relationship between freedom and growth. 

 He uses a marked tone shift to draw attention from the problems to the solutions.


Question 5(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from the concluding remarks of a speech given by President Ronald Reagan to the people of West Berlin in 1987.


(11)And now the Soviets themselves may, in a limited way, be coming to understand the importance of freedom. We hear much from Moscow about a new policy of reform and openness. Some political prisoners have been released. Certain foreign news broadcasts are no longer being jammed. Some economic enterprises have been permitted to operate with greater freedom from state control.


(12)Are these the beginnings of profound changes in the Soviet state? Or are they token gestures, intended to raise false hopes in the West, or to strengthen the Soviet system without changing it? We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace.


(13)General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!


Which of the following best describes the shift in tone from paragraph 11 to paragraph 12?

 Demanding to conciliatory

 Compromising to factual

 Apologetic to emotional

 Hopeful to questioning

 Morose to melancholy


Question 6(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a book that chronicles a man's exploration of Alaska.


(1)It was now near dark, and I made haste to make up my flimsy little tent. The ground was desperately rocky. I made out, however, to level down a strip large enough to lie on, and by means of slim alder stems bent over it and tied together soon had a home. While thus busily engaged I was startled by a thundering roar across the lake. Running to the top of the moraine, I discovered that the tremendous noise was only the outcry of a newborn berg about fifty or sixty feet in diameter, rocking and wallowing in the waves it had raised as if enjoying its freedom after its long grinding work as part of the glacier. After this fine last lesson I managed to make a small fire out of wet twigs, got a cup of tea, stripped off my dripping clothing, wrapped myself in a blanket and lay brooding on the gains of the day and plans for the morrow, glad, rich, and almost comfortable.


(2)It was raining hard when I awoke, but I made up my mind to disregard the weather, put on my dripping clothing, glad to know it was fresh and clean; ate biscuits and a piece of dried salmon without attempting to make a tea fire; filled a bag with hardtack, slung it over my shoulder, and with my indispensable ice-axe plunged once more into the dripping jungle. I found my bridge holding bravely in place against the swollen torrent, crossed it and beat my way around pools and logs and through two hours of tangle back to the moraine on the north side of the outlet,—a wet, weary battle but not without enjoyment. The smell of the washed ground and vegetation made every breath a pleasure, and I found Calypso borealis1, the first I had seen on this side of the continent, one of my darlings, worth any amount of hardship; and I saw one of my Douglas squirrels on the margin of the grassy pool. The drip of the rain on the various leaves was pleasant to hear. More especially marked were the flat low-toned bumps and splashes of large drops from the trees on the broad horizontal leaves of Echinopanax horridum2, like the drumming of thundershower drops on veratrum and palm leaves, while the mosses were indescribably beautiful, so fresh, so bright, so cheerily green, and all so low and calm and silent, however heavy and wild the wind and the rain blowing and pouring above them. Surely never a particle of dust has touched leaf or crown of all these blessed mosses; and how bright were the red rims of the cladonia cups beside them, and the fruit of the dwarf cornel! And the wet berries, Nature's precious jewelry, how beautiful they were!—huckleberries with pale bloom and a crystal drop on each; red and yellow salmon-berries, with clusters of smaller drops; and the glittering, berry-like raindrops adorning the interlacing arches of bent grasses and sedges around the edges of the pools, every drop a mirror with all the landscape in it. A' that and a' that and twice as muckle's a' that in this glorious Alaska day3, recalling, however different, George Herbert's "Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright.4"


(3)In the gardens and forests of this wonderful moraine one might spend a whole joyful life.


1 A rare orchid found in northern, mountainous areas.

2Also called Devil's Club, Echinopanax is a large-leafed shrub that grows in moist, dense forests mostly in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

3 Reference to Scottish poet, Robert Burns's poem that rejoices over the wide variety of positive traits in his wife.

4 Reference to a George Herbert poem that celebrates the glory found in nature and mourns the fact that it all must die.


The author's description in the phrase, "two hours of tangle back to the moraine on the north side of the outlet,—a wet, weary battle but not without enjoyment" is best described as an example of

 hyperbole

 allusion

 motif

 metaphor 

 simile


Question 7(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from the concluding remarks of a speech given by President Ronald Reagan to the people of West Berlin in 1987.


(11)And now the Soviets themselves may, in a limited way, be coming to understand the importance of freedom. We hear much from Moscow about a new policy of reform and openness. Some political prisoners have been released. Certain foreign news broadcasts are no longer being jammed. Some economic enterprises have been permitted to operate with greater freedom from state control.


(12)Are these the beginnings of profound changes in the Soviet state? Or are they token gestures, intended to raise false hopes in the West, or to strengthen the Soviet system without changing it? We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace.


(13)General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!


In paragraph 13, the speaker repeats the phrase "if you" primarily to

 iluminate the stubborn character of Gorbachev

 emphasize the importance of Soviet legislation

 erase any doubts of his willingness to compromise

 downplay Gorbachev's role in the removal of the wall

 hold Gorbachev accountable with a public challenge


Question 8(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following excerpt carefully before you choose your answer.


This excerpt is taken from a letter written by a father to his son.


"But then, on the other hand, I flatter myself, that as your own reason (though too young as yet to suggest much to you of itself) is, however, strong enough to enable you both to judge of and receive plain truths: I flatter myself, I say, that your own reason, young as it is, must tell you, that I can have no interest but yours in the advice I give you; and that, consequently, you will at least weigh and consider it well: in which case, some of it will, I hope, have its effect."


Which of the following best summarizes the message of this excerpt?

 The recipient is mature enough to receive and consider advice. 

 The writer is skeptical about his own qualifications to dispense advice.

 The youthful, in general, are too immature to receive advice. 

 Advice from the elderly should be followed without question.

 Advice from the elderly should be scrutinized before consideration.


Question 9(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a speech given by President Ronald Reagan to the people of West Berlin in 1987.


(1) Chancellor Kohl, Governing Mayor Diepgen, ladies and gentlemen: Twenty-four years ago, President John F. Kennedy visited Berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the City Hall. Well, since then two other presidents have come, each in his turn, to Berlin. And today I, myself, make my second visit to your city.


(2) We come to Berlin, we American presidents, because it's our duty to speak, in this place, of freedom. But I must confess, we're drawn here by other things as well: by the feeling of history in this city, more than 500 years older than our own nation; by the beauty of the Grunewald and the Tiergarten; most of all, by your courage and determination. Perhaps the composer Paul Lincke understood something about American presidents. You see, like so many presidents before me, I come here today because wherever I go, whatever I do: Ich hab noch einen Koffer in Berlin. [I still have a suitcase in Berlin.]


(3) Our gathering today is being broadcast throughout Western Europe and North America. I understand that it is being seen and heard as well in the East. To those listening throughout Eastern Europe, a special word: Although I cannot be with you, I address my remarks to you just as surely as to those standing here before me. For I join you, as I join your fellow countrymen in the West, in this firm, this unalterable belief: Es gibt nur ein Berlin. [There is only one Berlin.]


(4) Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe. From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers. Farther south, there may be no visible, no obvious wall. But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same—still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state. Yet it is here in Berlin where the wall emerges most clearly; here, cutting across your city, where the news photo and the television screen have imprinted this brutal division of a continent upon the mind of the world. Standing before the Brandenburg Gate, every man is a German, separated from his fellow men. Every man is a Berliner, forced to look upon a scar.


(5) President von Weizsacker has said, "The German question is open as long as the Brandenburg Gate is closed." Today I say: As long as the gate is closed, as long as this scar of a wall is permitted to stand, it is not the German question alone that remains open, but the question of freedom for all mankind. Yet I do not come here to lament. For I find in Berlin a message of hope, even in the shadow of this wall, a message of triumph.


(6) In this season of spring in 1945, the people of Berlin emerged from their air-raid shelters to find devastation. Thousands of miles away, the people of the United States reached out to help. And in 1947 Secretary of State—as you've been told—George Marshall announced the creation of what would become known as the Marshall Plan. Speaking precisely 40 years ago this month, he said: "Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos." 


(7) In the Reichstag a few moments ago, I saw a display commemorating this 40th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. I was struck by the sign on a burnt-out, gutted structure that was being rebuilt. I understand that Berliners of my own generation can remember seeing signs like it dotted throughout the western sectors of the city. The sign read simply: "The Marshall Plan is helping here to strengthen the free world." A strong, free world in the West, that dream became real. Japan rose from ruin to become an economic giant. Italy, France, Belgium—virtually every nation in Western Europe saw political and economic rebirth; the European Community was founded. 


(8) In West Germany and here in Berlin, there took place an economic miracle, the Wirtschaftswunder. Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty—that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy economic freedom. The German leaders reduced tariffs, expanded free trade, lowered taxes. From 1950 to 1960 alone, the standard of living in West Germany and Berlin doubled.


The purpose of discussing the motives of American presidents in paragraph two is to

 cite facts and figures in order to establish proof of his motives

 acknowledge the failures of the leaders who have visited in the past

 establish his own sincerity by aligning himself with trusted leaders

 illustrate the hopelessness of repeated presidential visits to the area

 reveal the futility of future presidential visits and summits to Berlin


Question 10(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a speech given by President Ronald Reagan to the people of West Berlin in 1987.


"In the Reichstag a few moments ago, I saw a display commemorating this 40th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. I was struck by the sign on a burnt-out, gutted structure that was being rebuilt. I understand that Berliners of my own generation can remember seeing signs like it dotted throughout the western sectors of the city. The sign read simply: 'The Marshall Plan is helping here to strengthen the free world.' A strong, free world in the West, that dream became real. Japan rose from ruin to become an economic giant. Italy, France, Belgium—virtually every nation in Western Europe saw political and economic rebirth; the European Community was founded."


In this paragraph, the speaker uses juxtaposition to contrast the

 economic growth around the world compared to Berlin

 intricacies of the Marshall Plan with its actual effects

 experience of destruction and ruin with that of rebirth and hope 

 past history of the Berlin Wall with the future of the new Berlin

 expectation of economic growth with the statistical reality of it


Question 11(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following excerpt carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a speech given by President Ronald Reagan to the people of West Berlin in 1987.


(4) Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe. From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers. Farther south, there may be no visible, no obvious wall. But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same—still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state. Yet it is here in Berlin where the wall emerges most clearly; here, cutting across your city, where the news photo and the television screen have imprinted this brutal division of a continent upon the mind of the world. Standing before the Brandenburg Gate, every man is a German, separated from his fellow men. Every man is a Berliner, forced to look upon a scar.




A modern writer wants to adapt the ideas from this part of the speech. He wants to add relevant support for the claim made in the fourth sentence (reproduced below) of the paragraph by including a quote from a reliable source.


But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same—still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state.


Each of the following sources could help to achieve this purpose EXCEPT

 a graphic published by an international human rights organization that analyzes health conditions, poverty levels, and educational quality as impacted by travel restrictions

 an article from an international newspaper which features interviews with three heads of state, each giving reasons for condemning the armed occupation and restrictions

 a quote from a social media posting which features thoughts and reactions from political science majors around the world as they learned of the checkpoints and restrictions

 an excerpt from a peer-reviewed journal of psychology that analyzes the long-lasting effects of constant military presence on the emotional growth of children under twelve

 a governmental database that features facts and statistics regarding mental health, unemployment, and crime rates in countries where people are not free to travel


Question 12(Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answer.


This passage is taken from a book that chronicles a man's exploration of Alaska.


(1)It was now near dark, and I made haste to make up my flimsy little tent. The ground was desperately rocky. I made out, however, to level down a strip large enough to lie on, and by means of slim alder stems bent over it and tied together soon had a home. While thus busily engaged I was startled by a thundering roar across the lake. Running to the top of the moraine, I discovered that the tremendous noise was only the outcry of a newborn berg about fifty or sixty feet in diameter, rocking and wallowing in the waves it had raised as if enjoying its freedom after its long grinding work as part of the glacier. After this fine last lesson I managed to make a small fire out of wet twigs, got a cup of tea, stripped off my dripping clothing, wrapped myself in a blanket and lay brooding on the gains of the day and plans for the morrow, glad, rich, and almost comfortable.


(2)It was raining hard when I awoke, but I made up my mind to disregard the weather, put on my dripping clothing, glad to know it was fresh and clean; ate biscuits and a piece of dried salmon without attempting to make a tea fire; filled a bag with hardtack, slung it over my shoulder, and with my indispensable ice-axe plunged once more into the dripping jungle. I found my bridge holding bravely in place against the swollen torrent, crossed it and beat my way around pools and logs and through two hours of tangle back to the moraine on the north side of the outlet,—a wet, weary battle but not without enjoyment. The smell of the washed ground and vegetation made every breath a pleasure, and I found Calypso borealis1, the first I had seen on this side of the continent, one of my darlings, worth any amount of hardship; and I saw one of my Douglas squirrels on the margin of the grassy pool. The drip of the rain on the various leaves was pleasant to hear. More especially marked were the flat low-toned bumps and splashes of large drops from the trees on the broad horizontal leaves of Echinopanax horridum2, like the drumming of thundershower drops on veratrum and palm leaves, while the mosses were indescribably beautiful, so fresh, so bright, so cheerily green, and all so low and calm and silent, however heavy and wild the wind and the rain blowing and pouring above them. Surely never a particle of dust has touched leaf or crown of all these blessed mosses; and how bright were the red rims of the cladonia cups beside them, and the fruit of the dwarf cornel! And the wet berries, Nature's precious jewelry, how beautiful they were!—huckleberries with pale bloom and a crystal drop on each; red and yellow salmon-berries, with clusters of smaller drops; and the glittering, berry-like raindrops adorning the interlacing arches of bent grasses and sedges around the edges of the pools, every drop a mirror with all the landscape in it. A' that and a' that and twice as muckle's a' that in this glorious Alaska day3, recalling, however different, George Herbert's "Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright.4"


(3)In the gardens and forests of this wonderful moraine one might spend a whole joyful life.


1 A rare orchid found in northern, mountainous areas.

2Also called Devil's Club, Echinopanax is a large-leafed shrub that grows in moist, dense forests mostly in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

3 Reference to Scottish poet, Robert Burns's poem that rejoices over the wide variety of positive traits in his wife.

4 Reference to a George Herbert poem that celebrates the glory found in nature and mourns the fact that it all must die.


The author is best described as

 a curious individual who seeks thrills in dangerous situations

 a serious scientist who is on a mission to chronicle climate changes

 an enthusiastic eyewitness who marvels over all of his experiences

 a timid novice who needs to be a part of a travel group to feel safe

 an extroverted explorer who is anxious to have a travel companion

Answer & Explanation
Verified Solved by verified expert
Rated Helpful
<p>facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lac</p> Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet

Unlock full access to Course Hero

Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library

Subscribe to view answer
  1. ue dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante
  2. usce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Don
  3. ctum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consecte
  4. nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risu
  5. ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tort
  6. ce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet
Step-by-step explanation

ctum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvina

ia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. L
Student reviews
71% (7 ratings)

"thanks"