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John Steinbeck: The Pearl  'The natives presented to us in The Pearl

are considered primitive and ignorant by the foreigners.' To what extent do you agree with this statement? Use illustrations from the text.  






Helmer: You are an odd little soul. Very like your father. You always find some new way of wheedling money out of me, and as soon as you have got it, it seems to melt in your hands. You never know where it has gone. Still, one must take you as you are. It is in the blood: for indeed it is true that you can inherit these things, Nora.
Nora: Ah, I wish I had inherited many of papa's qualities.
Helmer:And I would not wish you to be anything but just what you are, my little skylark. But do you know, it strikes me that you are looking-rather—what shall I say- rather uneasy today?
Nora: Do I?
Helmer: You do, really. Look straight at me.
Nora :   ( looks at him) well?
Helmer: (wagging his finger at her) Hasn't Miss Sweet Tooth been breaking rules in town today?
Nora:   No; what makes you think that?
Helmer: Hasn't she paid a visit to the confectioner's?
Nora:   No, I assure you, Torvald-
Helmer: Not been nibbling sweets?
Nora:   No, certainly not.
Helmer: Not even take a bite at a macaroon or two?
Nora:   (going to the table on the right) I shouldn't think of going against your wishes.
Helmer: No, I am sure of that: besides, you gave me your word- (Going up to her) Keep your little Christmas secrets to yourself, my darling. They will be revealed tonight when the Christmas tree is lit, no doubt.




Questions


Place this extract in its immediate context. (4 marks)


Explain the dramatic irony in this extract. (3marks)


Helmer says here, "it is splendid to feel that one has a perfectly safe appointment". What is he referring to? (1 mark)


What issues on money and gender emerge in this extract? (4 marks)


Identify and illustrate any two ways the playwright has used language to achieve foregrounding in this extract. (4 marks)


What do we learn about the character of Nora in this extract? (4 marks)


Imagine you are directing this play.
Which quality would you look for in an actor to play the role of Torvald? (2marks)


Explain the meaning of the following expressions as used in the extract? (3 marks)
i) Wheedling money out of me..............................................................................................
ii) Confectioner's...............................................................................................................
iii) You gave me your word.......................................






The river ,the forest and the  sky  all drew Densu  to  the  top  of  the hill with a power  he  had  no need to  fight against. He asked Nyaneba if there was no more work  he  could  do  on  the   farm up there. But at that time there was nothing really, and Nyaneba almost scolded him when he  asked once more what was there to do.   "Densu," she said at the end of her patience, "the animal that does not rest gets so angry  and unhappy that it spreads destruction wherever it goes. A human being works fully when there  is work to do. A human being rests fully when the season for rest comes."  Densu did not importune Nyaneba about work any more.  Almost everyday he climbed up  the hill and sat on the warm rock looking at the river and the forest canopy. From where he sat,  the river now looked thin and completely still. Seeing it at a distance, he had to think before it  became in his mind a moving thing, not a dead, flat sheet shining passively in the sun.  So he knew the river's motion in his mind, though his eyes perceived stillness. Once the  motion was clear in his mind, it did not stop. It flowed inathought stream that could take him from  the present all the way back to moments so far in the past his remembrance surprised him.  Some of the memories he would never understand. He had known a great happiness at a  time about which he remembered nothing but the feeling itself. This remembrance took his feeling  back to a time when he was helpless but feared nothing because there was a presence around him  that made fear a stranger. He had told people about this feeling and always left them puzzled    They said he could have had such a time, because his father died before he was born, and his  mother also died in child birth. Yet the feeling was part of his memory, and it was so strong he  knew it was true, in spite of what others saw and said. And often as he grew up, he found himself  searching, sometimes in anguish, sometimes with sheer desire for a return of that time and of the  feeling.  Yet life at times became an argument saying that presence, that wholeness he remembered  so mysteriously and sought so naturally, would never be possible in the world outside the wishing  mind. He had  known people  at Esuano, and begun to sees life  clearly, but most of the people   and most of  the life he saw  led his  mind far astray from the  peace he sought.  This too he remembered: in his twelfth year something strange had happened. A white  man had arrived at Esuano. He was not an official from the castle at cape coast, so people were  astonished to see him there at all. They were more astonished when he told them he was a trader  on the coast, but had grown tired of trading. He said he wanted to rest.   People shunned him. They were afraid of him and they had reason enough. He lived as if  he and water had quarreled bitterly. He did not like food. his sustenance was drink  and when he  was really  hungry  he  would look for  fruit, like  a child at play, and  that  would be his  meal.  Densu went to him and sat watching him. He still went to him long after the other children  had fled in fear. One day the stranger white man stopped singing his drunken songs, pointed to his  heart and shouted something.  "Collins!" He repeated the name, stabbing his breast repeatedly with an extended finger.  When he stopped, Densu pointed to himself and said "Densu." The white man roared  happily. He seemed immensely pleased with himself that Densu had understood him, as if he had  actually taught him to speak. He began a game of names, teaching Densu English words and  learning Akan words from him.  In less than a month the game of words changed. It became even. Densu went to Collins  whenever he had time. The idea of learning the strange language of the white excited him, and he  worked hard to make free time for his new passion. Collins taught him willingly. He seemed to  live for the hours when the eager boy came to talk to him.  But Collins stopped asking Densu the Akan names of things. With an eagerness answering   the boy, he taught him as fast as he could absorb new knowledge, and his yellow-red face  exploded with joy when Densu began at last to speak to him in his own  language. The solitary white man then gave up all pretence of wishing to learn Akan. He was happy enough to have a   person to talk to and teaching Densu to read and write gave him something to do when he was not drinking.  Densu asked him why he had left cape coast to come to Esuano. The white man's answer  was quite incomprehensible  to him. All he understood was that the mention of cape coast made  the white man violently angry. Once, later, Densu asked him why he did not go home.  The  drunken man wept tears at the questions. From then on Densu did not ask him any such questions  again.  In his first months at Esuano the white man Collins sold a few things to the few who had  any money. But after his third month at Esuano he sold nothing. Knowing adults predicted he  would die in a matter of weeks. They were disappointed and embarrassed when in spite of the  way he drank and starved himself, he remained noisily alive.   


a) Why did Densu spend most of his time seated on the rock up the hill?      


b) What effect did the river have on Densu?          


c) Who was the stranger and how old was Densu when he arrived?      


d) What does "He lived as if he and water had quarreled bitterly," mean?      


e) People dislike the stranger (Rewrite beginning with, "The stranger.........      


f) From what tribe does Densu come from?          


g) Write notes on why Collins was eager to teach Densu his language and why he stopped  learning  Densu's language           


h) Identify and explain one character traits of Densu         


i) Give the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the passage:-     
i) Importune -               
ii) Canopy -              
iii) Stabbing his breast......            
iv) Shunned...........................             
v) Incomprehensible......

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