Introduction What is family? This might seem like a rather simple question. After all, wa are all part of some kind of family and mary of us live
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  1. What did you learn about families? that you didn't know before
  2. Do you think it is important for prospective parents to be aware? of challenges that different types of families faced before they decide to become parents
  3. Has what you learned in this lesson so far impacted your beliefs about families and parenting if so, how
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Adoptive family Families are formed in a variety of ways. For a number of reasons, couples may not be able to have children of their own. In these cases, they may choose to adopt. Adoption is the legal and permanent transfer of parental rights from a person or couple to another person or couple. Adoptive parents have the same responsibilities and legal rights as biological parents. There are five main categories of adoption: * Adopting an infant, child, or youth from the Canadian child welfare system (public) * Adopting an infant or child (private) - Adopting a child from another country (international) * Adopting a stopchild children . Adopting a blood relative (kinship adoption) Adoption can be a costly and time consuming process, but it is the only viable option for many parents. The adoption process can range in cost from $0 to $30 000 and can take from 9 months to 9 years to complete (Adoption Council of Canada). Foster family The 2011 census counted foster children for the first time. Foster children make up a small population of children between the ages of birth and 18 who are placed in the foster care system when, for various reasons, they are not able to live with their parents. In some cases, children may live in foster care for a short period, while the family works through their problems. In other cases, a child becomes a crown ward, remaining in foster care until he or she is able to live independently. The majority (29 680 or 61 8%) of foster children reported in the 2011 census were aged 15 and under. The foster system, induding the establishment of age eligibility is under provincialterritorial jurisdiction. 10.7% 3.6 How has the family changed? The past 100 years in Canada saw significant changes in the family structure as families adapted to marry of the changes occurring in society. In the first half of the 20th century, the nuclear family was the most common family type.

The family life cycle Families grow and change over time. During your life, you will likely be part of a number of families. As a child, you are part of your family of orientation: the family into which you were born. As you get older, you may decide to have a child and create another family through procreation. The family life cycle describes the "typical" pattern where a couple forms a relationship and gives birth to a child. The family them continues to change and develop as the child gets older. From most of our experiences, we know that not all families follow this typical pattom, and that a number of different events, such as divorce or death, can cause the pattern to change. The family life cycle includes six stages: During each life stage, the family must complete a number of tasks to successfully move on to the next stage. In the early stages of marriage, the spouses need to negotiate how to make decisions and solve problems. They need to loam to live as a couple away from their family of orientation. In the next stage, the couple must adjust to the changes occurring In their relationship when children are bom. As time goes on, the family will need to learn to manage problems that arise during the teen years, as well as how to cope with the death of extended family members. Completing these types of tasks successfully will enable family members to move on to the next stage of the life cycle. As there are many more family types in our society these days, the family life cycle is not as straightforward as it once was. However, this approach is still used by social scientists in the study of family. as it creates a structure that allows for an organized study.

Functions of the family What do families do? Why does society need families? Are families important to our society's existence? These are the questions that social scientists ask when studying the family. Social scientists examine how families are organized, what roles family members play within society, and how society encourages individuals and families to carry out these responsibilities. Based on a review of families in various societies and cultures around the world, several basic functions of the family have been identified. Those functions are universal; in other words, all families around the world perform them. Shirley Zimmerman, professor of Family Social Science at the University of Minnesota, summarizes them as follows: . Families are responsible for adding new members through reproduction and adoption. A society must maintain a stable population to survive. - Families provide physical care for their members (that is, children, adults, and dependents). When families are unable to care for their members, society will step in to support families. In Canada, the goverment and other community agencies provide this kind of support. * Families socialize children. They teach them the skills, knowledge, values, and attitudes of their society. Children need to learn how to become functioning adults within their community . Families are responsible for controlling their family members behaviour. This is important for maintaining order within the family and within society. Parents do this by disciplining their children. * Families maintain morale and motivate individuals to participate in society. In North America, this is done by meeting children's emotional needs through love and care. This is often referred to as "affective nurturanoa." * Finally, families perform the economic function of producing and consuming goods and services. Historically, families produced the goods they needed to survive. These days, families sell their time and skils by producing goods and services to earn an income, which they use to purchase goods and services for their families. Families In the media While each family performs these six different functions, each one does so in is own unique way. Download "Families In the Media" and save a copy to your computer. Select one family from a TV show or movie. Complete the table by providing examples of each of the family's six main functions, according to the Vanier Institute of the Family. In the family you chose, who performs each of those six functions, and how? Did you find it easy to identify the ways in which your chosen family fulfiled the six functions of the family outlined in this lesson? Which were more difficult to identify? Explain.

Single parent family A single parent family, also known as a lone parent family, consists of one parent and one or more children. Single parent families are formed when a parent has never been married, when parents separate or divorce, or when a spouse or partner dies. If parents are separated or divorced and custody is shared, a child might belong to two lone. parent families. About 8 in 10 lone parent families were female single-parent families in 2011, accounting for 12.8% of all census families, while male single parent families represented 3.5% of all census families (Statistics Canada, 2012). Same sox couple family In the most recent census, Statistics Canada started to track the number of same-sox couples living in Canada. The 2011 census counted 64 875 same box couple families, which is up 42.4% from 2006. Of these couples, 21 018 were same sex married couples and 43 060 wore same sex common law couples. The number of same-sex mamied couples nearly tripled between 2006 and 2011, reflecting the first five year period for which same- sex marriage has been legal across the country. The proportion of same sex couples with children in the home rose from 8.0% in 2006 to 9.4% in 2011. Female same sex couples are more likely than their male counterparts to raise children, with 16.8% of this group reporting children in the home in 2011. Male same sex couples are also starting families, 3.4% of whom brought children into the home through adoption, surrogacy, or from a previous opposite sex relationship. Adoptive family

holidays. Extended family An extended family consists of the parents, children, aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents, and other blood relatives who may or may not live together. The size of one's extended family and the closeness of its relationships vary greatly. Maintaining connections with the extended family can be beneficial to parents. In some cases, an extended family lives together in the same household. In some cultures, this is expected. In other cases, the extended family lives in different parts of the country or world, limiting the amount of support they are able to provide to their children and grandchildren. Skipped-generation family In some instances, grandparents have had to take over the responsibility of caring for their grandchildren when parents were unable to do so. This is often referred to as skipped-generation parenting or a skipped-generation family- What kinds of challenges do you think grandparents might face when raising their grandchildren? Watch this video to learn more about the challenges associated with skipped generation parenting. Question: Skipped-generation family Based on what you heard in the video, and your own ideas, what challenges do you think grandparents face when raising their grandchildren? Student Answer

Metis family groups historically included both immediate and extended families and could readily change based on access to food resources. Families lived in multiple tents, tipis, and other forms of lodging dose to one another, and they shared all that they had and looked after the children. Prior to the fur trade era, each person's role, regardless of gender, was fluid and could change to meet the community's needs. Both men and women taught the children the skills they needed to survive. Men and their older sons usually hunted and could be gone for long periods of time. In their absence, the women were expected to stay home with the young children. Women and their young children also trapped small game and prepared hides for clothing and equipment, such as snowshoes. These roles were equally valued as both were needed for the community to thrive. Inuit The Inuit concept of Munnguing = "the making of a human being" = is based on the idea that all children should be able to live a good life in which they develop attitudes, behaviours, skills, and beliefs that are culturally relevant to the Inuit way. This process of socialization and education is not the responsibility of the parents only; instead, the whole community, whether blood relatives or not, raises the child. For example, a child is named for a deceased relative or friend of the family. In having this name, the child inherits all of the friends and family of their namesake. As the child grows, all these people contribute to nurturing, observing, and correcting the child. Nuclear family In Canada today, the most common image of a family is probably the nuclear family. Nuclear families have a husband, wife, and one or more biological or adopted children. In the mid-20th century, the most common type of nuclear family was the breadwinner family. In this family, the dad went to work to earn money and the mom stayed at home to mise the children. Today the dual-income family, where both parents work outside the home, is the most common form of nuclear family in Canada. Some nuclear families can also be blended families. Blended families are created when parents who are divorced or separated form a new family. The census counted 464 338 stepfamilies in 2011. They represented 12 6% of the nearly 3.7 million couple families with children (Statistics Canada, 2012). This new family includes children from one or both previous marriages andior from the now relationship. Children in blended families have stopparents and stopsiblings: parents, brothers, and sisters who are related to them legally, but not necessarily biologically. These families can be very complicated, as there may be other children (stopsiblings or half siblings) living elsewhere with the other parent as well. If children spend time in two different households, the parents in both households have input into the children's care. Other relatives, such as aunts, uncles, and grandparents from both families, all want to spend time with the children on weekends and holidays.

adoptive nuclearblended Traditional Indigenous families Before you see what families look like today in Canada, it is important to acknowledge and learn about traditional families for First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities and individuals. Marry Indigenous families followed a community model, meaning that the child was raised by parents, grandparents, community members, and Elders or Knowledge Keepers. Everyone in the community had a responsibility to contribute to raising the child in a good way. As Indigenous communities are very diverse, each nation, community, Settlement Area and territory had its own ways of ensuring a child was taken care of through specific traditions and teachings. The information in the following section highlights a few examples of the ways in which First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities understand parenting and child-rearing responsibilities. Marry Indigenous communities still follow traditional ways. Parents Children First Mudona Marry First Nations people raise their children and ensure their child knows their responsibilities based on a system of kinship known as a clan. One's clan dictates a child's future relationships, marriages, occupations, and responsibilities. Clans are represented by animals, birds, and fish, whose role in nature reflects the individual's roles in the community. Every nation across Canada has different animals, birds, and fish (typically found in wildlife local to that nation) to represent their plans. Marriages between members of the same clan are forbidden. Certain clans are matrilineal [passed down through the women of the familyh while others are patrilineal (passed down through the men). The Six Nations of the Haudenosaunce have a matrilineal clan system, headed by a clan mother. A child's nation is passed through the mother; if a child's mother is Mohawk and their father is Tuscarora, the child would be considered Mohawk and given a clan through Longhouse based on the mother's nation. The Anishinaabe have patriincal dodoms (the Anishinaabe word for dan). Dodams are also based on animals.

Arry combination of two or more persons who are bound together over time by ties of mutual consent, birth andfor adoption or placement and who, together, assume responsibilities for variant combinations of some of the following: . Physical maintenance and care of group members Addition of new members through procreation or adoption . Socialization of children . Social control of members Production, consumption, distribution of goods and services . A active nurturance - love How do the Statistics Canada What other agencies, and the Vanier Institute organizations, or companies definitions differ? might have their own definition of family? Sluckint Answer Student Answer Which definition more closely reflects your definition? According to these definitions, do you think that a person can Student Answer belong to more than one family at a time? Student Answer Types of families Families come in many shapes and sizes. Each family is made up of individual members, with different roles to play siblings step-family sejamily extended family lone parent grandparents interracial common-law parent tep-d dual income adoptive Exnuclearblended

What is family? Now, get ready to write. Find a piece of paper or open a new document on your computer, and set your timer for five minutes. Remember, your task is to answer the question, "What is family?" Begin recording your thoughts now. Your definition of family Now that you have completed the task, re-read what you wrote. is there anything else you'd like to add? Using the text box, enter your definition of the word 'family." Be sure to add any additional information that you thought of, after completing your writing exercise. Blucent Answer Formal definitions of family As you probably noticed, there are as marry definitions of family as there are people. Our definition of family is strongly influenced by our own experiences and relationships. Organizations also have different definitions of family. Each organization creates its own definition to meet its needs. For example, Statistics Canada, the government organization responsible for completing the Canadian census every five years, defines the census family as any of the following: * a married couple (with or without children of either or both spouses) - a couple living common law (with or without children of either or both partners) * a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child living in the same dwelling (Statistics Canada, 2006) Questions: Definitions of family The Vanier Institute of the Family is Canada's leading research and educational organization committed to the well-being of families in Canada in all their diversity. It defines the family in the following way.

Introduction What is family? This might seem like a rather simple question. After all, wa are all part of some kind of family and mary of us live with our families. What does family mean to you? if you wore asked to describe what a family is, how would you do so? Who and what influences your definition of family ? What you will learn After completing this lesson, you will be able to: * identify the many types of families in Canada * analyze your understanding of the terms "family" and "parent" to identify bias * identify a family's functions and explain how these functions are carried out Action Defining the family What does the word "family" mean to you? You are going to use a tool called "rapid writing" as you consider your understanding of what family is. Rapid writing allows you to record what you know about a topic without worrying about repetition, spelling, grammar, or other errors. Using this tool helps you quickly generate as many ideas about a topic as possible. The rules of rapid writing Welle (or type) as fast as you can. Jat a Eever for five minutes and uribe will the bimer " Do wet lift your poweremail from the paper or remove your hardy from the keyboard. If you get suck, jumpstart your brats by writing the topic Him and mabending it be forme a seabenes. : When the Wimer you off. pop and opened the water of words you have written and the number of Ideas you have

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