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Given the premises, discuss whether the conclusion of each argument that follows is (a) true beyond a reasonable doubt, (b) probably true, or (c)...

Given the premises, discuss whether the conclusion of each argument that
follows is (a) true beyond a reasonable doubt, (b) probably true, or (c) possibly
true or possibly false. You should expect disagreement on these items, but the
closer your answers are to your instructor’s, the better.
1. The sign on the parking meter says “Out of Order,” so the meter isn’t
working.
2. The annual rainfall in California’s north valley averages twenty-three
inches. So the rainfall next year will be twenty-three inches.
3. You expect to get forty miles to the gallon in that? Why, that old wreck
has a monster V8; besides, it’s fifty years old and needs an overhaul.
4. In three of the last four presidential races, the winner of the Iowa Republican
primary has not captured the Republican nomination. Therefore,
the winner of the next Iowa Republican primary will not capture the
Republican nomination.
5. The New York steak, the Maine lobster, and the beef stroganoff at that
restaurant are all exceptionally good. All the entrees are excellent.
6. The number of cellular telephones has increased dramatically in each of
the past few years. Therefore there will be even more of them in use this
coming year.
7. Since the graduates of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and other Ivy League
schools generally score higher on the Graduate Record Examination than
students from Central State, it follows that the Ivy League schools do
more toward educating their students than Central State does.
8. Michael Jackson has had more plastic surgery than anybody else in
California. You can bet he’s had more than anybody in Connecticut!

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