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3 "The History of Asians in America" by Timothy Fong Thesis: Prior to the 1965 Immigration Reform Act, the Vietnam War, and the global economic...

Please help me with AAS papers. Thank you!

1. a 1-page response to 1.3/the 3rd content item of Week 1 (= the NYT article); 1 page; double-spaced; 

LINK: http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/14/education/viewpoint-an-a-is-an-a-is-an-a-and-that-s-the-problem.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

2. an outline of 2.3 and 2.6 each 

2.3 “The History of Asians in America” by Timothy Fong Thesis : Prior to the 1965 Immigration Reform Act, the Vietnam War, and the global economic restructuring of the 70s, Asian immigrants and Asian Americans faced “tremendous” legal/institutional barriers that led to their experiencing discrimination and civil rights violation. 1. Visibility and invisibility: At the same time Invisibility: In the making and remaking of the American history/America (Emil Guillermo/ Asian Week ) on PBS, They Made America on 64 innovators & entrepreneurs; no Asian in the documentary Glorifying the Anglo-Saxon/British elitism Asian Americans = only as victims of individual prejudice, mob violence, and institutional discrimination; victims of hostility and oppression Visibility: Biological/natural/racial features: The image of “perpetual foreigners” 2. A brief history of Asians in America: Immigration Immigration 1 st wave: 1848-1924: hundreds of thousands, China, Japan, the Philippines, Korea, India; The earliest in the 5 th century: Buddhist missionaries from China; the coastal area of Southern California; archaeological finds; 1571: Chinese shipbuilders in Baja California; brought by the Spaniards; Prior to 1848: Filipino seamen in the coastal area of Louisiana; brought by the Spanish galleons; the presence of Chinese merchants and sailors in the U.S.; Asian Indians in the U.S. as indentured servants and slaves in the late-18 th century; 1848 the California gold rush; large-scale immigration from China; 52,000 Chinese; Mid-1860s: Gold ran out; worked on transcontinental railroad construction; More than 300,000 Chinese in the U.S. in the 19 th century; different occupations; some to Hawaii; most in the mainland America; The pull factors : Between the 1840s – 1860s Capitalist and financial interests of the U.S. The U.S. business-economic map; the gold rush and transcontinental railroad construction Human mobility & national and international trade; the domestication of the West; Need for cheap labor: Free migration and emigration of the Chinese; American trade privileges in China; The 1868 Burlingame Treaty = “free migration and emigration” of Chinese to the US in exchange for American trade privileges in China (p. 16); 1870: Chinese = 9% of California’s population; 25% of the state’s work force; Mostly young single men: Sojourners
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The U.S. laws: To limit the immigration of Chinese women & to prohibit intermarriage with white women; The “U.S. against China” push factors: After the completion of the TR railroad in 1869: Work in agriculture, clearing land, digging canals, orchards, harvesting crops; city jobs (making shoes, cigars, clothing); small-business owners (restaurants, laundries, general stores); domestic workers (house boys, cooks, gardeners); Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: Hostility of the certain localities and the pressure on the government; To ban Chinese laborers and their wives; Assessment : Contribution to the U.S. economic development & development of the West: Mostly the groundwork essential for large economy & the domestication and development of the West The long-term impact upon the Asian American/immigrant communities: Immigrants as ‘disposable” people to be blamed and kicked out; Hindering the development of families and community: Bachelor society: Most were lonely bachelors; 1890 data = 102,620 Chinese men vs. 3,868 Chinese women = 26:1; Japanese: Emerging as an international military power First came to Hawaii; not until 1890s to the U.S. mainland, in large numbers; Fully exploited the agricultural sector; as agricultural laborers; began owning their own farms; by 1919, controlled over 450,000 acres of agricultural lands = 1% of California’s agricultural land; 10% of the state’s crops; Preference: Japan emerging as an international military power (Russo-Japanese War); the 1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement to allow Japanese women to enter the U.S.; Stable family & community formation: Filipinos: Koreans: Asian Indians: Anti-Asian laws and sentiment Controlling/banning citizenship rights (1790): Asian Americans unable to gain citizenship; race-based Foreign Miners Tax (1850) No legal status to testify against white persons (1854): in the murder case $50.00 tax on all alients ineligible for citizenship (1855): Chinese 1870s: Economic downturn/depression; heating up the anti-Chinese sentiment; massacres of Chinese in L.A. & Wyoming;
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1 2.6 “Enclaves, Ethnoburbs, and New Patterns of Settlement among Asian Immigrants“ by Wei Li and Emily Skop The research question: Shifting geographic distributions of the Asian American population; from the traditional central urban/city enclaves to the suburbs/ethnoburbs; Thesis : One of the new settlement patterns of the majority of contemporary Asian Americans is the (a) rise of the ethnoburbs—suburbs where many, upper- and middle-class new Asian immigrants settle and contribute to the (2) diversification of the suburbs and (c) increasing participation in their local politics . 1. Demographic Overview of Asian Americans 1.1 Since the mid-19th century: Asian Americans mostly as laborers in agriculture, fishing, mining, manufacturing, construction; service workers; small- business owners; 1.2 Geopolitical change and global economic restructuring of the 1960s: The economic developments of the four Asian Little Dragons (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan); 1.3 Economic operations become more and more global and knowledge- based; growing demand for (a) highly skilled workers and (b) capital investors; 1.31 Many highly educated Asian professionals with entrepreneurial skills and/or financial resources immigrating to the U.S.; 1.32 The 1965 Immigration Reform Act and family reunification & the 1980 Refugee Act: Many low-skilled, less-educated work force from Asia, the Philippines, Vietnam, China; refugees from Southeast Asia (Cambodian, Laotian, and Hmong refugees); 1.33 Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990: Highly skilled professionals from India and China; 1.34 Other short- and long-term employment-based immigration of Asians; 1.35 Increasing numbers of the native-born Asian Americans; 2. Geographic Distribution of Asian Americans 2.1 Traditional Asian immigrant gateways: historical destination states of Asian immigrants until 1990: California, New York, Hawaii; 2.2 1990: Newly emerging Asian immigrant gateways: a new pattern & de- concentration & urban bound & new gateways : California, New York, Texas, New Jersey; Illinois, Washington, Florida, Virginia, Massachusetts; Nevada, Georgia; Arizona, Delaware, New Hampshire; (Tables 6.1, 6.2); 2.3 Asian American population centers: Table 6.3; 2.4 P,60: The NY metropolitan area = Chines, Asian Indians, Koreans; Los Angeles = Koreans and Filipinos; 3. Changing Asian American Settlement Forms: The Socio-spatial Experiences of Asian Americans
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2 3.1 More complex/diverse geographical gateways/residency: Central city losing its former appeal; declining housing and economic qualities; 3.2 Effects of the changing geopolitical and social mapping: (a) initially = cluster around the central city because of transportation costs + job opportunities + cheap housing + low rents + ethnic networks; (b) upward socio-economic mobility = to move away from the central city/inner city ethnic enclaves to suburbs = spacious + racially diverse + mostly white; as a sign of higher level of sociocultural and economic assimilation; 3.3 The ”uptown vs. Downtown“ phenomenon: (p.61) Native-born and/or the upper-class/professional Asian Americans with the economic means moving to suburbs while leaving the elderly, recently arrived, and poorer immigrants behind in downtown” Chinatown“ or “Koreatown“; 3.4 The large-scale suburbanization of Asian Americans: Not until WWII: Mainstream jobs became available; the outlaw of racial discrimination in the housing market; the overall suburbanization of America; attracting the well-to-do Asian Americans; 3.5 Many newly immigration Asian immigrants directly settling in the suburbs: Transforming the formerly white-dominant communities; 3.51 Dispersed/hetero-local residential locations; 3.52 Chain migration: Realtors and developers in particular suburbs; San Gabriel Valley; Arcadia; a wide range of ethnic-specific businesses, professional services, travel agencies, language schools, ethnic supermarkets, immigration/financial/legal/medical services; 3.6 A pipeline for more cohesive Asian American political representation: 3.61 Cooperation with other multiethnic and muti-lingual neighbors; (P. 63); 4. Suburban Communities: Implications for Economic, Cultural, and Political Incorporation 4.1 American Dream: Who is the creator? 4.2 Overall: Asian Americans: Equipped with: The know-how = academic degrees + English proficiency + professional training + financial resources; expedient/effective assimilation; 4.3 Transforming their residential communities: What are the cultural, economic, and political implications? How do Asian Americans in the suburbs change the local fabric/make-up?; 4.31 Owning/operating businesses; 4.32 Presenting their cultural heritage; 4.33 Participating in both grassroots and electoral politics; especially the native-born Asian Americans involved in local economic, cultural, and political affairs; 4.34 Increasingly important roles of the suburban Asian American ethnic economy;
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